TCP IP Illustrated

In chapter 8 well look at the traceroute tool for

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Unformatted text preview: ll look at the Traceroute tool for determining the route followed by a datagram.) Despite these shortcomings, the record route option works and provides an opportunity to look in detail at the handling of IP options. Figure 7.3 shows the general format of the RR option in the IP datagram. Figure 7.3 General format of record route option in IP header. Code is a I-byte field specifying the type of IP option. For the RR option its value is 7. Len is the total number of bytes of the RR option, which in this case is 39. (Although it's possible to specify an RR option with less than the maximum size, ping always provides a 39-byte option field, to record up to nine IP addresses. Given the limited room in the IP header for options, it doesn't make sense to specify a size less than the maximum.) Ptr is called the pointer field. It is a 1-based index into the 39-byte option of where to store the next IP address. Its minimum value is 4, which is the pointer to the first IP address. As each IP address is recorded into the list, the value of ptr becomes 8, 12, 16, up to 36. After the ninth address is recorded ptr becomes 40, indicating the list is full. When a router (which by definition is multihomed) records its IP address in the list, which IP address is recorded? It could be the address of the incoming interface or the outgoing interface. RFC 791 [Postel 1981a] specifies that the router records the outgoing IP address. We'll see that when the originating host (the host running ping) receives the ICMP echo reply with the RR option enabled, it also records its incoming IP address in the list. Normal Example Let's run an example of the RR option with the ping program. We'll run ping on the host svr4 to the host slip. One intermediate router (bsdi) will handle the datagram. The following output is from svr4: svr4 % ping -R slip PING slip (140.252.13.65): 56 data bytes 64 bytes from 140.252.13.65: icmp_seq=0 ttl=254 time=280 ms RR: bsdi (140.252.13.66) slip (140.252.13.65) bsdi (14...
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