TCP IP Illustrated

In many applications it is better than broadcasting

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Unformatted text preview: nd 11). The reports are in a different order this time, as expected, since the time between receiving the query and sending the report should be randomized. The final query that we show occurs about 2 minutes after the previous query, and again we have the expected responses. 13.5 Summary Multicasting is a way to send a message to multiple recipients. In many applications it is better than broadcasting, since multicasting imposes less overhead on hosts that are not participating in the communication. The simple host membership reporting protocol (IGMP) is the basic building block for multicasting. Multicasting on a LAN or across closely connected LANs uses the techniques we've described in this chapter. Since broadcasting is often restricted to a single LAN, multicasting could be used instead of broadcasting for many applications that use broadcasting today A problem that has not been completely solved, however, is multicasting across wide area networks. [Deering and Cheriton 1990] propose extensions to common routing protocols to support multicasting. Section 9.13 of [Periman 1992] discusses some of the problems with multicasting across WANs. [Casner and Deering 1992] describe the delivery of audio for an IETF meeting across the Internet using multicasting and a virtual network called the MBONE (multicasting backbone). Exercises 13.1 We said that hosts schedule IGMP reports with random delays. How can the hosts on a LAN try to ensure that no two hosts generate the same random delay? 13.2 In [Casner and Deering 1992] they mention that UDP lacks two features needed for sending audio samples across the MBONE: detection of packet reordering and detection of duplicate packets. How could you add these capabilities above UDP? file:///D|/Documents%20and%20Settings/bigini/Docum.../homenet2run/tcpip/tcp-ip-illustrated/igmp_int.htm (7 of 7) [12/09/2001 14.47.02] Chapter 14. DNS: The Domain Name System DNS: The Domain Name System 14.1 Introduction The Domain Name System, or DNS, is a distributed database that is used by TCP/IP applications to map between hostnames and IP addresses, and to provide elec...
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/04/2014 for the course ECE EL5373 taught by Professor Guoyang during the Spring '12 term at NYU Poly.

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