Chapter 18

Chapter 18 - Chapter 18 16 Century Northern European Art I...

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Chapter 18 16 th Century Northern European Art I The Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman empire Where modern day Germany is Not a nation o Nations didn’t exist until 19 th century o Governed by holy roman empire Protestant Reformation o In response to perceived deficiencies in way catholic church was run o Martin Luther 95 theses – 1517 Nailed to cathedral door Said what could be done to improve catholic church Images were fine and you could keep them as use them as illustrations o John Calvin Formed Calvinists No related images were admissible Iconoclasm rights o Literally means to break images o People went around destroying sculptures and images in certain churches o Protestant church interior White-washed walls and took down altarpieces of already standing churches Very sparse in decorations Lucas Cranach the Elder, Allegory of Law and Grace, ca. 1320, woodcut Elder/younger vs. Junior/Senior Allegory of law and grace Woodcut o Cheaper and easier to produce o Could spread over a wider area Used to teach people things Left – protestant view of Catholicism o Tree divides scene o Go to heaven because you follow the rules Right – protestant view Protestantism o You go to heaven because you have grace and are saved Matthais Gruenwald, The Isenheim Altarpiece, c. 1510-1515 Program of altarpiece o Opens not once, but twice o Painted with polychrome sculptures inside it
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o Polyptych – many individual panels (type of altarpiece Popular in north Close altarpiece o Crucifixion scene Mary is fainting and wearing white Saints on either side (Sebastian on left and Anthony on right) o St. Sebastian and St. Anthony were plague saints Usually survived some kind of plague o Christ Everything is graphically portrayed He’s a kind of green color Right arm and legs are amputated o Lamb of God Chalice and transubstantiation Opened altarpiece o Brightly colored on inside o Resurrection scene Christ doesn’t actually have a body Body of light 2 nd pair of open panels o Polychrome – painting sculptures o St. Anthony – patron of this particular order Hospitals were where you went to die, not get well Run by religious orders to make sure your soul was prepared to die Temptations of St. Anthony o Devil sends out something to temp them into sinning
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Chapter 18 - Chapter 18 16 Century Northern European Art I...

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