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psych notes - Intelligence global mental ability involved...

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Intelligence- global mental ability involved in effective reasoning, problem solving, acquiring and retaining knowledge, thinking creatively as people get older, they become more complex imagination is more important than knowledge- Einstein He who joyfully marches to music rank and file has already earned my contempt. Easier to go along with the crowd than think for yourself Creative People Use imagination Independence-belief in own ability Intense interest in a problem Willingness to restructure the problem Preference for complexity-don’t like things that are too easy A need for stimulating interaction Different elements in overall intelligence Mathematical Verbal Special finding your way around places, maze Creativity Reasoning, problem solving Memory- idiot savant, people with retardation sometimes have very good memory Binet & Simons IQ Test 1904 developed as assessment tool fro French children to find out if the kinds need remedial help. Test had four features o Interpret scores as estimate of current performance
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o Used to identify special needs children, not used to distinguish between smart and dumb o Emphasized that training/opportunity could improve performance o Constructed the test empirically Was not based upon pre conceived knowledge The scores were expressed in mental age not chronological Terman’s IQ Test Stanford Binet was the name of the test First test in the states Modified for the us school children Many different variations Improved Intelligence quotient o Mental age/chronological age x 100 *the average should be 100 Most people have an IQ of 100 Mental retardation should be significantly lower IQ follows bell curve 68% fall between 85-115 70 is the cutoff for mental retardation, 70-85 mild familial mental retardation(runs in family) >70 organic mental retardation Mental retardation is often conceived as representing the lower 2% of the IQ range Giftedness = upper 2% of IQ Many advantages/disadvantages Advantages Most successful tool because of validity whether it measures what it says it measures. Each item should measure intelligence Predictive validity- you should be intelligent all around
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Reliability, when you give test, it will produce an outcome that is reliable Test-Retest you should get the same score if taken again Inter-Rater different person…same score Inter-item (intra-test) you should do just as well on all questions Disadvantages Fluidity, IQ does change over the years Cultural bias..African Americans score lower than whites Brain & Behavior Biopsychology- the study of how the brain influences behavior Franz Joseph Gall (1808)- Phrenology- specific regions of the brain relate to different aspects of their personality based on the shape of your skull very wrong, but people believed him for a long time *** Different regions are responsible for our behaviors
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