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Unformatted text preview: Psych Test 3 notes MOVIE Defining presence of emotion Taught chimp how to communicate with ASL Chimps don't have vocal chords like us but are still able to communicate All animals share same emotional tool kit Fear Aggression Need to procreate Brain stem/thalamus we share with reptiles Animals either adapted to climate future or died Mammals could adapt themselves to the environment Mammalian brain has maternal love Reptiles get out of mothers way MOM Mother is attached to child, communicates with child mammals are not preprogrammed Physical growth, brain development and emotional development are the most important Beta endorphin is a chemical in the brain and connects the mother and child Baby elephants' feet had something wrong with them, the sister was torn between staying with the mom or going with the rest of the family, baby's feet finale worked them mom helped and was patient with the baby giving it its time No mammal can survive without maternal devotion Without a mother's love a child is at r isk most orphans in the wild don't survive We can att ribute human emotions to animals All mammals' brains react with punishment/reward system Play is rewarded by happiness You can t ickle animals and they will laugh the animals enjoyed the playing Playing sometimes strengthens the connection of neurons in the brain; some molecules are turned on by touch Dogs smile because they are happy and relaxed Play is practice for life's dangers Carnivores -predatory play Loaners (cats)-object play Deer-ampli tory play Chimps t ry to play like children play Chimps get happy for holidays the social nature they love the play and make up games Family is so important to survive When bonds of family are threatened fear is experienced Emotions are the key to survival Animals don't have voices but they have calls, languages and songs Loyalty, grief, empathy only humans have Elephant fell into water; the rest of the family helped i t to get out Animals do have emotion, you can study facial expressions, and chimps are the best 5 universal expressions Fear Disgust Happiness Surprise Anger Chimps share 98.4% DNA with humans, less than 50 different genes L imbic system and hippocampus Modern brains differ in size then design Private speech/sign talking to yourself (thinking aloud) Friendship is more powerful than aggression Mean leader was beaten because he was mean to the babies Food test-watch grooming habits then offer favorite food and t rack how they t reat each other * * reptilian brain-brain stem and basic function the one part that is still there after revolution Animals can adapt through emotions Examples of emotion-facial expressions , elephant sister had anxiety, elephant stuck in mud worried each elephant helped to get baby out, rats like being tickled, they would run faster that the petted ones Play strengthens connections in brain, important for life skills-predators Species that compete, terr i torial, play fighting, Grooming was t raded for food most important when an animal that didn't usually groom them did, they got bigger t reat EMOTION AND MOT IVATION Difference between emotion and behavior Behavior-how we act or conduct ourselves, tangible thing that we can measure, observable act Emotion- phenomenological, internal-private state Emotion is four part process Physiological arousal-neuronal activation, hormonal change
o Frightened-blood drains, heart increases In terpretation-objective, a thought, attaching meaning to circumstance
o Blame Feelings-internal affective state
o Fear, anger Behavioral expression-facial expressions, gestures Evolution of emotions -help people to be able to cope with reoccurring situations, moms taking children away from dangerous situations Darwin believed that we are hardwired for survival -we know what is genetically important, friend from foe 6 Universal facial expressions Ekman & Izard studied people for different cultures and found agreement -fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, anger, sadness Different muscles are used when you're "fake smiling" vs. really smiling Certain people can only smile either fake vs. real (brain damage) How many emotions are there? Love Submission Awe Disappointment Remorse Contempt Aggressiveness Optimism Gender differences Biological-hormones Boys and girls have same amount of sex hormones until age 4, boys are more aggressive than girls, girls are more depressed Cultural differences Boys-anger Girls-sadness, vulnerability, empathy They dressed girls as girls and boys as boys and say how people t reated them Boy cried and people said that he was angry Girl cried and they said she was sad Fast and unconscious-like startled reflex Conscious slower-association areas of brain The limbic system Amygdala-takes in sensory info, fast H ippocampus-involved in emotional memory Regular activating system Used for fight or f l ight, arousal, emotional arousal, acts like warning signal, monitors incoming sensory info Cortex Right vs. left hemisphere
o Cortex that can override RAS tells you to calm down Right-more active during negative emotion-excessive laughter Left- more active during positive emotion-depression Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic nervous system) Regulates arousal Hormones-adrenaline active during fear
o o o Serotonin-sadness Norepinephrine-calming, anger Androgenic steroids-lust, anger Damage to amygdala can result in appropriate responses to situations Schacters 2 factor theory Experience arousal Derive explanation Evidence: Schacter & Singer 1962 Injected people with epinephrine Filled out questionnaire-bad questions Asked them emotions
o o Epinephrine-more angry Placebo-not as angry MOTIVATION What drives us to do things, makes us feel good or bad, internal process that activates, guides and maintains behavior Processes that activate our behavior How do psychologists use concept of motivation Motivation Connects observable behavior to internal states Accounts for variabili ty in behavior (skinner-rewards/punishments) Explains perseverance despite adversity Relates biology to behavior Rewards can sometimes squelch motivation Int r insic motivation o Desire to engage in activity for ones own sake Do it because you love it Ext rinsic motivation o Desire to engage in activity for reward Do it because of money/pride Over justification-external rewards can displace internal rewards and motivation 2 groups of children...had them draw, they all loved it and gave a group a reward, the other group was given nothing, tested them again and the rewarded children were less enthusiastic, non rewarded kids were really happy, even though they enjoyed it you can reduce motivation by giving a reward Researchers praised kids for doing homework, some were praised for effort, some not at all, the kids that were praised for being smart picked easier problems, other kids t r ied harder problems Theories of motivation Instinct theory-derived from ethnologists cold apply the concept Instinct-an innate pattern of behavior, universal in species, ciliated by specific stimuli Instinct theory- fixed action patterns Imprinting-derived from Lorenz, recognize face after birth and follow it aroundgenetically predetermined Lorenz believes that we behave aggressively because we have a aggressive motivation, as natural humans as animals Aggression serves to enhance your survival and optimize you passing on genes Most people in human society are not aggressive Drive theory-applies to all sorts of motivations, especially basic ones, incorporates homeostasis, if levels get low experience drive state called push theory Problems with drive theory-predicts what we should always do things that produce drive states Cognitive theory-Julian Routter Likelihood of us selecting behavior determined by -expectation of attaining goal -personal value of attaining goal -Locus of control- believes that we are pulled to behave a certain way, develop beliefs Freuds Psychoanalytic theory-believes motivation comes from the Id Two basic desires *Survive/reproduce (love instinct) eros * thanatos- death instinct Believed it was necessary to expel urges, get r id of aggression Maslows Humanistic theory- act on needs in order of importance, if one satisfied are biological/basic/social ones Biological o Food, water, oxygen, rest, sex Safety o Security, comfort, t ranquility, freedom from fear Attachment o Need to be loved (can't survive without love) Esteem o Confidence, sense of worth, respect from others Self actualization o Fulfill potential, have meaningful goals Problem with theory, you can fulfill self actualization before biological ones (monks) Hunger motivation Receptors in brain- hypothalamus closely monitor things like blood sugar, send signals to brain Set point- you brain can inform central nervous system and tell you about fat storage Feedback- takes a long t ime. Stomach expands and tells us when to stop a meal Preference for sweet/fat- evolved over centuries have a natural predisposition Physical activity- extreme exercise provokes hunger, moderate suppresses i t External cues- environmental cues stimulate when you eat, brains need variety of f lavors SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY The study of how individuals are influenced by the presence of others, real or imagined, can feel like there is a presence of others Study on aggression, att ribution, attraction, persuasion How does the social situation affect our behavior Situationism-environmental conditions influence people's behavior more than personal dispositions..things that determine how you're gonna act is environment Social role-socially defined, expected patterns of behavior, student, child, employee Script-knowledge about the sequence of events/actions expected, pattern of behavior that is required, cognitive template that we use, learn them socially, come to class, sit down and open up notebook Social norms-standards of behavior, inf luence students political views, we all have norms on what are acceptable and not Students who started school at a liberal school are more likely to become a liberal. If you go to opposite you become more like the other side. Social life that you life influences atti tudes. Att r ibutions-explaining reasons of why people behave like they do In ternal o Cause of the behavior is something like the person call a person a jerk because they're selfish External
o Cause of behavior is because of situation thought that they had more time, didn't realize that the light was going to change so quick Fundamental att ribution error-look at peoples behavior and believe that they weren't raised r ight, but explaining our actions we give ourselves the benefit of the doubt Self serving bias- make a distinction of positive/negative. Contribute our success to internal and failure to external On average most people function with a self serving bias Self justification Cognitive dissonance
o People have conflicting cognitions, when voluntary actions conflict with attitudes highly motivating state, need cognitive consistency, pressure within to maintain consistency Change your mind and decide you're not a good person Change your behavior, I'm a good person, what I did was wrong Conformity-when you behave in line to social pressure, real or imagined Ash effect- showed subjects lines and had them choose which line matched, 6 of 7 ppl were confederates, the last person was not a confederate, the confederates would give wrong answer, over 15 t r ials, 11 gave wrong answers When all six give wrong answer, about 60% accuracy, about 37% the subjects conformed Sometimes varied the size of group, there was no conformity. If like 15 then a lot of conformity Group characteristics that produce conformity Ashe identifies three factors that influence whether a person will yield to pressure
o o o Size of group, smaller-less, larger-more Presence of a partner who dissented from the majority The size of the discrepancy between the correct answer and the majority position Group think Members of group attempt to conform their opinions to what each believes to be the consensus of the group
o Challenger explosion, the people that said go ahead felt a lot of pressure to go ahead with things, everyone had some uncertainty but nobody voiced i t Conditions that are likely to promote group think Isolation of the group H igh group cohesiveness-esp with beliefs and values Directive leadership Lack of norms requiring methodical procedures
o Substance abuse in the work place Homogeneity of members social background and ideology H igh stress from external threats with low hope of a better solution than that of the group leader Power of the situation 70% sided with the wrong answer at least once Subject was paid to help someone improve their memory 2/3 of the subjects went all the way and shocked the person with the wrong answer He randomly assigned to either guard or prisoner, was not based on personality The guards only worked 8hr shifts, the prisoners were there all the time Nice boys became brutal guards, healthy kids got sick Many prisoners developed extreme, and had to be released, nobody quit Read about obedience in text book According to Paul Ekman people around the world share and recognize atleast six basic facial expressions depicting emotion Damage to amygdale would be expected to blunt fear The r ight hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is most likely to be involved when a person is depressed after the loss of the favorite pet Which theory of emotion proposes that emotion result when you first feel arousal and then and then cognitively label the arousal..schacters Serotonin is to sadness as norepinephrine is to anger Motivation can help us understand why organisms continue to perform reliably even under difficult circumstances Hunger Regulates behavior in order to maintain a certain psysical condition in the body know as a set point from the evolutionary perspective we can understand emotions as helping organisms important and recur ring situations instinct theory can account for imprinting in waterfowl likelihood of behavior according to rotters social learning theory are expectation and value you att ribute your failing to external locus of control ...
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- Spring '08