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1995502 and hawkins et al 2001345 2413 learning

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Unformatted text preview: nd [Shimp, 1997:126; Engel et al., 1995:502; and Hawkins et al., 2001:345 Learning Learning is the term used to explain the procedure by which a consumer’s memory and behaviour are altered as a result of conscious and non-conscious information processing. It has been suggested that learning comprises of two types, namely declarative and procedural. Declarative learning involves the subjective facts that are known (for 30 example, that wheels, a saddle and pedals are components needed in riding a bicycle), whereas the procedural learning refers to the understanding of how these facts can be used (knowing how these components can be used in actually riding a bicycle) [Hawkins et al, 2001:324; Shimp, 1997:126; Burgess, 1998:40; and Schiffman & Kanuk, 2000:255]. It is crucial for marketers to acquire a thorough understanding of what consumers know (or don’t know) for a simple reason – what consumers buy, how much they will pay, where they buy and when they buy are influenced by the knowledge they possess. Such understanding may lead to discovering significant gaps in consumer learning that, when closed, will increase the likelihood of a purchase. A misinformed consumer, for instance, may not understand how a product works, resulting in the product not being purchased or used correctly [Hawkins et al., 2001:333; Swait, 2001:135; and Zeithaml & Bitner, 1996:38]. People are constantly making efforts in trying to learn the right information efficiently and effectively. Learning can take place on two levels, namely high-involvement learning and low-involvement learning. High-involvement learning refers to times when a consumer is encouraged to process or learn material whilst low-involvement learning deals with a consumer that lacks drive in processing or learning information [Hawkins et al., 2001:325]. The next section deals with the way that children learn and how this influences their behaviour. Studies dealing with the way that children think often have not been taken sincerely but the works of Jean Piaget set the change in motion [Papert, 1999:104]. Generally speaking, children are not capable of processing and remembering all types of information presented to them [Hawkins et al., 2001:212 and Hall, 2000:153]. Children go through different stages as they mature physically, mentally and as consumers. The different stages are illustrated in table 2.1. 31 Table 2.1 Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. Stage Period Ave. age Description / Characteristics Although cognitive development is 0 to 2 years seen, the child does not "think" conceptually. 1 Sensorimotor intelligence 2 Pre-operational thoughts 3 to 7 years Language development and rapid conceptual development. 3 Concrete operations 8 to 11 years Ability to apply logical thought to concrete problems. 4 Formal operations 12 to 15 years Greatest level of cognitive structures which allow the child to apply logic to all classes of problems. Source: Hawkins, D.I., Best, R.J., Coney, K.A., 2001, Con...
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