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2000 marketing management millennium edition usa

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Unformatted text preview: urce: Kotler, P., 2000, Marketing management, Millennium edition, U.S.A.: Prentice-Hall, p. 161. Figure 2.1 shows how the marketing mix and other stimuli enter a consumer’s thoughts. The consumer then has to make certain decisions, which are directly influenced by their personal characteristics. For a marketer, the ideal end result would see the consumer making a purchase. Other models contain more detail and would focus on specific issues as demonstrated by Engel et al. [1995:154] and Hawkins et al. [2001:26] in figure 2.2 and figure 2.3 respectively. 21 Figure 2.2 Consumer decision-process model Stimuli Marketer dominated o Other o Exposure Need recognition Internal search Search Attention Comprehension Memory External influences Culture o Social class o Personal influences o Family o Situation o Pre-purchase alternative evaluation Individual differences Motivation and involvement o Consumer resources o Knowledge o Attitudes o Personality and values o Lifestyle o Acceptance Purchase Retention Consumption Post-purchase alternative evaluation External search Dissatisfaction Satisfaction Divestment Source: Engel J.F., Blackwell, R.D., Miniard, P.W., 1995, Consumer behavior, 8th edition, U.S.A.: Dryden Press, p. 155. Figure 2.2 indicates the impact of environmental influences and individual differences on the consumer. They play an important role when it comes to the decision-making process. This process spurs on a consumer’s memory recall, which can then be used in carrying out a purchase and deciding whether it was a satisfactory action or not. 22 Figure 2.3: A model of consumer behaviour Experiences and Acquisitions External Influences o Culture o Subculture o Demographics o Social status o Reference groups o Family o Marketing activities Decision Process Situations Problem recognition Information search Self-concept and Lifestyle Needs Alternative evaluation and selection Desires Internal Influences o Perception o Learning o Memory o Motives o Personality o Emotions o Attitudes Outlet selection and purchase Post purchase processes Experiences and Acquisitions Source: Hawkins, D.I., Best, R.J., Coney, K.A., 2001, Consumer behavior, 8th edition, New York, U.S.A.: McGraw-Hill, p. 26. In figure 2.3 a person’s self-concept and lifestyle is the central role of consumer behaviour. External and internal influences can produce and affect needs and desires, ultimately affecting the decision-making process. As this cycle of need satisfying takes place, the consumer gains experience. Based on the objectives of this research study an adapted model of consumer behaviour is used. The chosen foundation model for this research study is that proposed by Hawkins et al. [2001:26]. It is an easier model to understand in terms of a child’s thinking and lifestyle, as the scope of this study does not go into as much depth as 23 discussed with the model put forward by Engel et al. [1995:154] but also requires more than Kotler’s [2000:161] basic marketing approach. An adapted mo...
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