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2001227 and kotler 2000163 community organisations

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Unformatted text preview: uent, informal interpersonal contact. They are viewed as social aggregations that facilitate unrestricted face-to face interaction. This reasoning explains why similar-minded children like to play with each other. Secondary groups, on the other hand, have limited face-to-face interactions and are typically more sporadic and less comprehensive and influential [Churchill & Peter, 1998:156; Hawkins et al., 2001:227; and Kotler, 2000:163]. Community organisations, schools and religious groups are typical cases in point. Aspirational groups exhibit a desire to adopt the norms, values and behaviour of others with whom the individual aspires to associate. Consumers will therefore adapt themselves accordingly, to what they seem to be a positive attraction, regardless of realistic rationalisations and their capabilities. For example, a young girl may be exposed to television and store advertising, and want to get hold of as many ‘Coca-cola’ bottle-top liners in order to win a cell phone. She may believe that having a cell phone will allow her to fit in with a trendy group of girls at her school. The fact that she is allergic to gassy cold drinks and has no money somehow does not hinder her aspiration. Groups 57 portraying a less desirable appeal are called dissociative groups. Individuals can be seen to reject their values and behaviour. This motivation steers the individual away from one group but closer to another group [Martin et al., 1999:165; Brassington & Pettitt, 1997:115; Hawkins et al., 2001:227; and Kotler, 2000:165]. A scholar, for instance, might try to dissociate himself from children that shoplift. According to Hawkins et al. [2001:232] reference groups can take on three influential forms, namely normative, informational and identification. Normative (or utilitarian) influence occurs when an individual fulfills group expectations to gain a direct reward or to avoid a sanction. This has sometimes been referred to as the relationship between rewards of compliance as compared with the costs. Approval and symbols of esteem can provide incentives and rewards, whilst restriction on freedom of choice or lost time can be seen as costs, for example. The resulting actions will be determined by a consumer’s perception of the profit inherent in the interaction. This in turn is dependent on how conspicuous the action is [Hawkins et al., 2001:233]. A child, for example, may prioritise what brand of potato chips he is to consume, as everyone is exposed to his choice and will therefore approve or disapprove. Informational influence is the way an individual accepts the opinions and behaviours of others as providing credible and needed evidence about reality. This influence is more apparent when consumers are confronted with difficult product assessments and is usually based on either the resemblance of the group’s members to the individual or the proficiency of the influencing group member [Hawkins et al. 2001:232 and Rummel et al., 2000:38]. A y...
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