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Unformatted text preview: ion as they are continually growing up.
The following section deals with archetypal consumer learning conditions that are 48 grouped under three headings namely, self-oriented values, environment-oriented values
and other-oriented values. 126.96.36.199 Self-oriented values
• Hard work / leisure
Consumers may view work as being a burden that they detest, whilst others may see
work as helping them fulfill their lives. Another aspect looks at whether people will
either work for internal rewards or external rewards [Murray, 2002:16; Hawkins et
al., 2001:54; and Fay, 1992:50]. For example, does a child go to a shop to buy bread
and milk because they have been given extra money for sweets if they do, or is it
because they actually like going to the shop or perhaps that they are expected to by
their parents? • Active / passive
This refers to the way that consumers are either expected or not expected to take on
life’s challenges. An active approach be the way that physical skills and feats are
valued more highly than less physical performances [Hawkins et al., 2001:52 and
Levy & Weitz, 1998:140]. Children, for instance, are often encouraged to choose
their own purchases when going shopping with their parents. • Postponed gratification / immediate gratification
Some individuals may believe that carpe diem (seize the day) is very important.
They will subsequently live for the moment and take each day one at a time. In
contrast to this, others may believe that it is more important to “save for a rainy day”
[Hawkins et al., 2001:54]. This approach might encourage a child to save some of
his pocket money and not spend it all at once. • Material / non-material
Some people may push the notion that material wealth accumulation is vital in
sustaining social well being. This notion can either take the form of being instrumental or terminal. The former refers to materials that are acquired to enable an
individual to do something. For example, a consumer buys a computer so that they 49 can work more effectively and play games in their leisure time. An acquisition for
the mere sake of owning something, such as art, is known as terminal materialism
[LaBarbera & Gurhan, 1997:71 and Hawkins et al., 2001:53].
• Religious / secular
This refers to the extent of religious impact on daily activities [Holden, 2001:657;
Burgess, 1998:16; and LaBarbera & Gurhan, 1997:80]. For example, Islamic consumers generally live a more religious oriented life than some Christian
consumers. This subsequently would see how their shopping hours differ due to
• Sensual gratification / abstinence
Some cultures may shun upon the idea of people overdoing the minimal requirements
needed in satisfying desires such as eating and drinking. For example, a child may
not be allowed to have sweets after a meal, as the meal is seen as being sufficient
enough in settling hunger pains. The other side of the coin reflects how some
consumers might find form of overindulgence totally acceptable [Rotella &...
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