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Children have been found to more creative in their

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Unformatted text preview: been found to more creative in their efforts [Ayman-Nolley, 1999:267 and Brassington & Pettit, 1997:103]. One of the most influential aspects that come into play with regard to selective perception is that of noise. Noise can be any message, commercial or not, that can distort or prevent information from being sent and received efficiently [Arens, 1999:12]. Often consumers will learn things but will forget them because they don’t conform to their beliefs and attitudes. These bits of information are only transitory. This is the reasoning behind selective retention [Keenan, 2001:25 and Jones & Sasser, 1995:89]. A diagrammatical breakdown of perception is shown in figure 2.6, followed by an examination of each stage of the information-processing model. 27 Figure 2.6 Information processing for consumer behaviour. Exposure Perception Random Low Involvement Deliberate Attention High Involvement Interpretation Low Involvement High Involvement Memory Short term Long term Purchase and consumption decisions Source: Hawkins, D.I., Best, R.J., Coney, K.A., 2001, Consumer behavior, 8th edition, New York, U.S.A.: McGraw-Hill, p. 284. With regard to figure 2.6, as soon as a stimulus is within a person’s receptor nerve’s range, exposure has then taken place. This range includes the actual person as well as the person’s environment. A child, for instance, may be doing homework with the radio on and not be listening, but exposure would still have taken place. People participate in one form of exposure at a time and are always seeking information that they believe will help them achieve their goals [Hawkins et al., 2001:285]. Attention occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerve and the consequential sensations go to the brain for processing. This occurrence, however, always takes place within the context of a situation. Different consumers may devote different levels of attention to different stimuli in different situations [Hawkins et al., 28 287]. For example, the members of a family may pay attention to various things whilst stopping at a petrol station. Attention is determined by three factors, namely individual factors, situational factors and stimulus factors. Individual and situational factors will be discussed later on in this chapter. For the time being, a look at stimulus factors will suffice. Stimulus factors are physical characteristics of the stimulus itself that tend to attract a consumer’s attention independently of their individual characteristics. Categories of stimulus factors can include contrast, colour, movement, isolation, size, intensity, format, and positioning [Hawkins et al. 2001:287; Burgess, 1998:53; and Shimp, 1997:122]. A bright, neon yellow and red ‘Shell’ logo at night would be an example. The way that a consumer assigns meanings to sensations is known as interpretation. It is a function of the pattern formed by the characteristics of the stimulus, the individual and the situation [Arens, 1999:132]. Indivi...
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