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Unformatted text preview: will depend on the time interval between when attitudes are measured and when the to-be-predicted behaviour actually takes place. Even a fairly short time interval does not necessarily ensure accurate prediction [Kraus, 1995:64 and Lowry Miller, 1993:104]. For instance, what happens if the child plans on spending the weekend at a friend’s house but his parents plan on taking him elsewhere? On occasion, it is believed that social influences can affect behaviour to a greater extent than personal attitudes. This has been deducted from the theory of reasoned action – stating that behavioural intentions are determined by either attitudes or subjective norm (perceived social influence) [Bredahl, 2001:23 and Subrahmanyan & Cheng, 2000:269]. An example is a child, despite his beliefs, agreeing to like a retail store purely because of the attitudes demonstrated by his friends. This subject will be scrutinised in the section dealing with reference groups. Attitude accessibility is another type of influence under discussion. In order for attitudes to be able to influence behaviour, they have to be accessed by the consumer. Even though there is a lot of information, much of it will not be accessed by the consumer in any given moment [Arens, 1999:134]. A young girl, for instance, may not be able to decide whether she has a favourable or unfavourable attitude towards a cold drink simply because she cannot remember what it tastes like. 36 The last influence in this section is that of direct experience. Attitudes are often formed as a result of an experience a consumer has had with a product or service [Kempf, 1999:35]. The way a consumer regularly buys staple items from the same convenience store is an example. It must also be noted that experience is sometimes not needed in enabling a consumer to form an attitude [Kirzner, 2001:47 and Lovelock & Wright, 1999:67]. For example, a child that has never played the computer game ‘Tombraider’ may have a positive attitude towards it just by having watched the movie. 2.4.3 Motivation Motivation is generally referred to as a creation representing an unobservable internal force that stimulates and compels a behavioural response and provides precise direction to that response [Hawkins et al., 2001:362; Kotler 2000:171; Schiffman & Kunuk 2000:266; and Engel et al. 1995:404]. A person is said to be motivated when his or her system is aroused and driven towards a behaviour in satisfying a desired goal. The stronger the drive, the greater the perceived urgency of response. To a consumer, this drive can be viewed as either a need or a want [Mowen, 2000:96; Arens, 1999:136; and Brassington & Pettitt, 1997:23]. To illustrate the difference, consider a thirsty child buying a cold drink in a retail store. The child needs something to drink and can buy anything within his financial limits. The problem arises when he wants a ‘Powerade’ but can’t afford it. He can, however, satisfy his need by buying another beverage. There are a number of factors that can act as catalysts in motivating consumers. The more prevalent ones, which include product consumptio...
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