For many years psychologists and marketers alike have

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Unformatted text preview: n and acquisition; time; changed circumstances; individual differences and marketing influences will be discussed in the section dealing with need recognition. For many years, psychologists and marketers alike have tried to classify needs. Some of their lists are lengthy and creative. [Cravens, 2000:76; Zikmund, 2000:6; Walker et al. 1999:22; and Brassington & Pettitt, 1997:23]. It is generally believed that catering for consumers is far easier and effective once one gathers some understanding with regard to 37 social and personal needs. Four of the most significant contributors, namely Herzberg, Freud, McGuire and Maslow are discussed in the following section. i. Herzberg’s theory Frederick Herzberg [in Bennett, 2000:155] developed a two-factor theory that distinguishes dissastisfiers (factors that cause dissatisfaction) and satisfiers (factors that cause satisfaction). This can be viewed in table 2.2. Table 2.2: Herzberg’s comparison of dissatisfiers and satisfiers Dissatisfiers o o o o o o o o o o Pocket money / salary Relationship with seniors Relationship with peers Personal life Status Relationship with subordinates Work conditions Parent's policy Supervision Security Satisfiers o o o o o o Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Source: Adapted from Bennett, J.A., 2000, Managing Tourism Services, 4th edition, Pretoria, South Africa: J.L. van Schaik Publishers, p. 155. Herzberg’s theory postulates that the dissatisfiers neither contribute to nor result in satisfaction. In addition, satisfiers have to actively be present to motivate a purchase and that it is impossible to motivate consumers by utilizing environmental factors [Bennett, 2000:155]. ii. Freud’s theory Sigmund Freud [in Kotler, 2000:172] assumed that the psychological forces shaping consumer’s behavior are mostly unconscious and that a consumer cannot fully understand their own motivations. In other words, a consumer (either an adult or child) will examine a product and react to it using their stated capabilities and less conscious cue such as shape, weight, size, colour and brand just to name a few. 38 iii. McGuire’s theory McGuire’s theory uses a set of motives that accounts for a limited range of consumer behaviour. These need categories are summarised in table 2.3. Table 2.3: McGuire’s classification system Type of need Description The desire to have all facets, such as behaviours and o Need for consistency attitudes of oneself consistent with each other. o Need for modeling How a person's behaviour is based on what others do. o Need for self-expression The need to express one's identity to others. The reason why actions take place because of o Need for re-inforcement promised rewards. A consumer's need for engaging in activities that will o Need for assertion bring about an increase in self-esteem and the way which others view them. The way in which one can categorise and organise o Need to categorise information and experiences in some meaningful yet manageable way. How one looks for cue or symbols...
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