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Unformatted text preview: n and acquisition; time; changed
circumstances; individual differences and marketing influences will be discussed in the
section dealing with need recognition. For many years, psychologists and marketers alike have tried to classify needs. Some of
their lists are lengthy and creative. [Cravens, 2000:76; Zikmund, 2000:6; Walker et al.
1999:22; and Brassington & Pettitt, 1997:23]. It is generally believed that catering for consumers is far easier and effective once one gathers some understanding with regard to 37 social and personal needs. Four of the most significant contributors, namely Herzberg,
Freud, McGuire and Maslow are discussed in the following section. i. Herzberg’s theory Frederick Herzberg [in Bennett, 2000:155] developed a two-factor theory that
distinguishes dissastisfiers (factors that cause dissatisfaction) and satisfiers (factors that
cause satisfaction). This can be viewed in table 2.2. Table 2.2: Herzberg’s comparison of dissatisfiers and satisfiers Dissatisfiers
o Pocket money / salary
Relationship with seniors
Relationship with peers
Relationship with subordinates
Growth Source: Adapted from Bennett, J.A., 2000, Managing Tourism Services, 4th edition,
Pretoria, South Africa: J.L. van Schaik Publishers, p. 155. Herzberg’s theory postulates that the dissatisfiers neither contribute to nor result in
satisfaction. In addition, satisfiers have to actively be present to motivate a purchase and
that it is impossible to motivate consumers by utilizing environmental factors [Bennett,
2000:155]. ii. Freud’s theory Sigmund Freud [in Kotler, 2000:172] assumed that the psychological forces shaping
consumer’s behavior are mostly unconscious and that a consumer cannot fully
understand their own motivations. In other words, a consumer (either an adult or child)
will examine a product and react to it using their stated capabilities and less conscious
cue such as shape, weight, size, colour and brand just to name a few. 38 iii. McGuire’s theory McGuire’s theory uses a set of motives that accounts for a limited range of consumer
behaviour. These need categories are summarised in table 2.3. Table 2.3: McGuire’s classification system Type of need Description The desire to have all facets, such as behaviours and
o Need for consistency
attitudes of oneself consistent with each other.
o Need for modeling
How a person's behaviour is based on what others do.
o Need for self-expression The need to express one's identity to others.
The reason why actions take place because of
o Need for re-inforcement
A consumer's need for engaging in activities that will
o Need for assertion
bring about an increase in self-esteem and the way
which others view them.
The way in which one can categorise and organise
o Need to categorise
information and experiences in some meaningful yet
How one looks for cue or symbols...
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