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an essential prerequisite for building a brand. Image analysis would examine the associations consumers have with the brands in their awareness sets. These associations
may involve the brand’s physical properties as well as its benefits and feelings that come
from product consumption [Bennett, 2000:92]. Purchase knowledge consists of any information that is relevant with regards to acquiring
a product. This information can be divided into two issues: where should the product be
purchased and when should this purchase take place. The issue of where a product
should be purchased comprises of different channels filled with many competitors.
Consumers have to consider each business entity’s physical location, whether they sell
the desired product and how to locate it within the store [Levy & Weitz, 1998:230].
33 When consumers are not familiar with a store’s layout, they become more dependant on
in-store information. This increases the consumer’s involvement and could subsequently
identify unrecognised needs that have to be satisfied [Levy & Weitz, 1998:540]. With
regards to the timing of purchases, often a setting unfolds when consumers know when
products are placed on sale and thus delay purchasing some items [Churchill & Peter,
1998:486]. User knowledge refers to the way a product can be used and what peripherals are needed
in doing so. The adequacy of consumers’ usage knowledge is important especially
because of the fact that uninformed consumers will less likely buy the product [Cravens,
1999:112]. The way that some rural African people are taught the basics about using
toothpaste as part of oral healthcare is an example [The Star, 2002:14]. Another predicament occurs when consumers possess incomplete information about the
different way or situations in which a product can be used. Efforts have to be made in
order to eradicate this problem [Zeithaml & Bitner, 1996:374]. The way that the snack
food company, ‘Simba’, educates consumers via written instructions on how to use their
‘Tazo’ toys in different ways illustrates this point. It should be mentioned that a purchase that has been made by a customer who is either
uninformed or misinformed, can still result in a negative evaluation due to not being able
to use or consume the product in the correct or intended manner [Laroche et al., 2000:1
and Lovelock & Wright, 1999:246]. A common example is that of a consumer who has
just bought a cell phone airtime recharge voucher but does not know how to use it. 2.4.2 Attitudes Attitudes refer to a consistent favourable or unfavourable orientation towards objects,
concepts or situations [Hawkins et al., 2001:394 and Brassington & Pettit, 1997:108].
Attitudes consist of three components, namely cognitive, affective and behavioural. The
cognitive component houses a person’s knowledge and beliefs about an object. An
example would be that a consumer believes that all convenience stores are open twentyfour hours a day. The affective component represents a person’s feelings a...
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