In other words people start to think in varying

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Unformatted text preview: tive feelings such as jealousy and fear. Consumers often recall these subjective feelings as being their emotions. Cognitive thought, however, is the accompanying aspect when these emotions take place. In other words, people start to think in varying degrees [Hawkins, et al., 2001:378 and MacKay, 1999:182], particularly children [Brigham & Kauffman, 1998:25 and Schickedanz, 1994:274]. A child, for instance, may lose self-control over being frustrated or simply being bored. It is this reasoning that has lead to attempts in trying to categorise emotions into a more understandable format. The breakdown of emotion is illustrated in table 2.5. 42 Table 2.5: Emotional dimensions, emotions and emotional indicators. Dimension Emotion Indicator / Feeling Duty Faith Pride Affection proud, superior, worthy loving, affectionate, friendly Innocence Gratitude innocent, pure, blameless grateful, thankful, appreciative Serenity Desire restful, serene, comfortable, soothed desirous, wishful, craving, hopeful Joy Competence Pleasure moral, virtuous, dutiful reverent, worshipful, spiritual joyful, happy, delighted, pleased confident, in control competent Interest attentive, curious Hypoactivation bored, drowsy, sluggish Activation Surprise unimpressed, uninformed, unexcited involved, informed, enlightened, benefited distacted, pre-occupied, inattentive playful, entertained, lighthearted scornful, contemptous, disdainful Conflict Guilt tense, frustrated, confilctful guitly, remorseful, regretful Helplessness Sadness Dominance Déjà vu Involvement Distraction Surgency Contempt Arousal aroused, active, excited surprised, annoyed, astonished powerless, helpless, dominated sad, distressed, sorrowful, dejected Fear Shame fearful, afraid, anxious ashamed, embarressed, humilated Anger angry, agitated, enraged, mad Hyperactivation panicked, confused, overstimulated Disgust Skepticism disgusted, revolted, annoyed, full of loathing skeptical, suspicious, distrustful Source: Hawkins, D.I., Best, R.J., Coney, K.A., 2001, Consumer behavior, 8th edition, New York, U.S.A.: McGraw-Hill, p. 379. The previous sections have specifically dealt with internal influences. As indicated earlier in figure 2.5, there are numerous external factors that have significant contributions to the behaviour of consumers. These external factors, namely culture, social stratification, demographics, geographics, reference groups, families and / or households and marketing activities will be discussed in the following section. 43 2.5 External factors influencing consumer behaviour External influences play a significant role in affecting a consumer’s behaviour and include the following issues namely, culture, subculture, social stratification, demographics, geographics, reference groups, families, households and marketing activities. 2.5.1 Culture Culture is referred to as the complex whole that includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society. Culture includes abstract and material elements. It influences a...
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