Individual related characteristics such as prior

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Unformatted text preview: dual related characteristics, such as prior learning, play a significant role in influencing interpretation. A relevant issue at this stage, that deserves some mentioning, is that of expectations. The case in point would rationalise the way younger consumers see everyday objects and thus have expectations of these objects [Hawkins et al., 2001:297]. A ‘Red Band’ book at ‘C.N.A.’, for instance, is expected to be cheaper than other books but seldom is. It often happens that consumers are misinformed subsequently leading to inaccurate knowledge on their part – otherwise known as misperception [Keenan, 2001:25]. When misperceptions are present in a consumer’s mind, goods and services may not seem so attractive to consumers. Corrective measures, such as re-informing consumers correctly, are in order [Bennett, 2000:92 and Li et al., 2000:425]. A consumer, for instance, incorrectly heard that ‘Total La Boutique’ stores do not sell doughnuts. The consumer would then purposefully not go to the respective store every time he wanted to buy some doughnuts. 2.4.1.2 Memory A person’s memory is the total accumulation of prior learning experiences. It consists of two interrelated components, namely short-term and long-term memory. The former, 29 otherwise known as working memory, is that portion of total memory that is currently in use. The amount of information that it can store is limited thus making it an active, dynamic process and not a static structure [Hawkins et al., 2001:341; Nurrenbern, 2001:1107; and Shimp, 1997:126]. Short-term memory houses two types of information processing activities: elaborative activities and maintenance rehearsal. Elaborative activities are defined as: “…the use of previously stored experiences, values, attitudes, beliefs and feelings to interpret and evaluate information in working memory as well as to add relevant previously stored information” [Hawkins et al., 2001:341]. An example is that of a child using his existing knowledge, on ice-skating, in learning how to use a pair of roller blades. Maintenance rehearsal on the other hand is something quite different and is defined as follows: “… the continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it in current memory for use in problem solving or transferral to long-term memory” [Hawkins et al., 2001:341]. A scholar repeating mathematics formulas or definitions several times, in preparation for a school test, is a typical example of maintenance rehearsal. Long-term memory, the second component of memory, is seen as being unrestricted in the quantity or quality of information it is capable of storing. Remaining with the topic at hand, a difference between explicit and implicit memory needs to be addressed. When a consumer makes a conscious recollection about an event (such as a trip to the local café) they were exposed to, then they are making use of their explicit memory. An example of implicit memory usage would see how a consumer tries to non-consciously retrieve a previously encountered stimulus that refers to an association with a bra...
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