It has often been regarded that families form the

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Unformatted text preview: roles [Chirazi, 2002:18; Canedy, 1998:6; Levy & Wietz, 1998:110; Headley, 1997:60; and Witt, 1997:253]. Typical examples include more working mothers and housekeeping fathers. • Extended / limited family Although this subject is dealt with extensively in the section dealing with consumers’ families, a brief look for the time being will suffice. It has often been regarded that families form the basis for societies and have a lifetime long impact on individuals regardless of their backgrounds. The difference lies in that some cultures believe in having large families, thus demonstrating their wealth or ensuring that their elders are comprehensively looked after in the future. Individuals are seen to be liable in ensuring the well being of the entire family. This, however, is contradicted by beliefs that smaller families are more mobile and economically viable in providing the best for each member. These members subsequently do not feel as obliged to take care of the entire family [Kotler, 2000:166]. 53 • Individual / collective This aspect, as postulated by Hofstede [in Engel et al., 1995:636], examines whether consumers are pushed into thinking and doing things for themselves or are driven into working as a group with one purpose in mind. Collectivism pertains to building strong cohesive groups with unquestionable loyalty in exchange for the protection given to consumers. Cultures, that are high in individualism and collectivism, found in Australia and the U.S.A. promotes the idea of people being independent and unique, whilst countries like Japan and India (those with low respective scores) believe otherwise. South Africa, however, has cultures that promote both ways of thinking [Hawkins et al., 2001:46 and Gannon, 1998:38]. • Competitive / co-operative Success in life is viewed by some people only to be attainable by competing successfully against others. The analogy of “being in a rat race” is all too familiar with these types of consumers. This drive for success sometimes sees parents push their children too hard, often resulting in unhappiness [Guthrie & Matthews, 2002:33 and Taylor, 2002:17]. In contrast to these beliefs, there is the notion that success is possible by forming alliances and conglomerates. This is the rational behind the Japanese Keiretsu for instance [Brierty et al., 1998:30]. 2.5.2 Social stratification, demographics and geographics Social stratification refers to an influence that affects the ways consumers behave. Virtually all societies exhibit social stratification. The respective social classes that emerge are relatively homogenous and enduring divisions in society, which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values, interests and behaviour [Engel et al., 1995:681 and Churchill & Peter, 1998:155]. In other words, a person is ranked according to one or a few dimensions valued by society such the amount of money one earns or where one lives. The result of social structuring subsequently reflects a community’s expectations for a lifestyle among each class as well as the positive or negati...
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/04/2014 for the course SOCIAL SCI 23 taught by Professor Salman during the Winter '10 term at University of the Punjab.

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