One could never learn from ones errors unless one

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Unformatted text preview: each time that we try to teach them something too quickly, we keep them from reinventing it themselves" [Papert, 1999:104]. 51 Moreover, behaviour could never become progressively skilful with practice unless the child knew something about the results of certain actions in advance of launching them. One could never learn from one's errors unless one knew in advance the kinds of actions that could pull one away from error and towards success. [Russell, 1999:247]. • Cleanliness This refers to how important hygiene and health is to various people. Some cultures place a high value on maintaining personal and public hygiene whilst others do not because they do not accept the concept or simply do not know any better. An illustration is that some rural Africans lack the knowledge and importance of oral healthcare and subsequently do not make use of toothpaste [Cateora & Graham, 1999:360]. • Nature This last environment-oriented value deals with the manner that people regard nature as either being something that can be conquered / improved upon or something that has negative connotations [Hawkins et al., 2001:51]. Attempts have been made to interpret the way this influences a child’s soation [Easterling & Miller, 1995:531], subsequently giving rise to green marketing – a term used to identify concern with the environmental consequences of a variety of marketing activities [US Newswire, 2000:1; Ottman, 1998:10; and Churchill & Peter, 1998:44]. An example is that of the fictional ostrich character ‘Zibi’, who promoted recycling amongst younger consumers. Other-oriented values • Youth / age This measures the extent on the way that daily activities are focused on either adults or children. It also looks at the role of children in decision-making and their position in society. Some cultures may place a high priority on children and results in an environment that revolves around its youth. Other cultures may operate in a manner 52 similar to the old cliché “children should be seen and not heard” [Hawkins et al., 2001:47; Kotler, 2000:166; and Hong, 1999:641]. Although it is sometimes thought that western societies are youth orientated, Jerry Large [2002:8] argues that “our lives have distinct borders, and children are not welcome in most workplaces. Modern American child rearing is as much about stashing children away as it is about actual parenting.” • Masculinity / femininity This factor, another one postulated by Hofstede [in Engel et al., 1995:637 and Hawkins et al., 2001:48], defines the extent to which societies hold values traditionally regarded as predominately masculine or feminine. Men have generally been identified with the need for acquisition of money and materials, assertiveness and respect for achievement, whilst women have generally been associated with environmental concerns and nurturing. These roles are, however, going under major changes (where culture permits it) and the trend today sees a blurring of gender...
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/04/2014 for the course SOCIAL SCI 23 taught by Professor Salman during the Winter '10 term at University of the Punjab.

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