Unformatted text preview: tems that fall into routine problem solving tend to be low risk, low priced and frequently
purchased. These so-called low involvement purchases simply do not carry enough risk
for the consumer, whether in terms of financial loss or damage to social status, to get
excited about the importance of “making the right decision” [Churchill & Peter,
1998:148]. Habitual problem-solving purchase can be explained by a simple thee-stage model
[Mittal & Kamakura, 2001:131; Arens, 1999:130; and Kempf, 1999:40]. The stages are
• Stage 1: awareness of the brand or product. • Stage 2: trial. • Stage 3: if stage 2 was satisfactory, then repeat purchases will take place. Generally speaking, marketers are keen on seeing consumers making habitual purchases.
It must also be kept in mind that habitual purchases differ from brand loyal purchases.
Consumers that are highly involved in their purchase tend to be more brand loyal whilst
consumers that are not as involved, brand usage over a long period may be little more 75 than habitual behaviour [Kotler, 2000:268]. An example of habitual behaviour is illustrated when a mother buys her family ‘All Gold’ tomato sauce, not because she is
committed to the product, but because her family always seem to be satisfied with the
product. She might consider buying another tomato sauce such as ‘Crosse & Blackwell”
if something influences her to do so, such as a price reduction or “buy one get one free”
promotion or simply if the product is out of stock. Brand loyalty occurs when customers like and consistently buy a specific brand in a
product category. They are reluctant to switch to other brands if their favourite brand is
not available [Huang & Yu, 1999:523 and Yeo, 1999:37]. Arens [1999:136] refers to it
as being “the consumer’s conscious or unconscious decision, expressed through intention
or behaviour to repurchase a brand continually.” Store or company loyalty means that
customers like and habitually visit the same store to purchase a type of merchandise
[Burgess, 1998:10]. For example, if a child always buys his favourite comic at a preferred local café, the child has a fairly high degree of product involvement but a low
degree of purchase involvement because of brand loyalty. v. Special categories of buying behaviour Not all purchases are planned comprehensively in advance. Purchases can be fully
planned, partially planned or unplanned. A fully planned purchase usually is a consequence of a purchase, which requires a lot of input from the consumer in the form
of extended problem solving and high involvement. In other words, the buyer knows
exactly what he / she wants and will carry out any actions needed in satisfying his need.
For example, a person about to embark on a grocery shopping trip will draw up a list of
products or brands that he / she intends on buying. His / her visit to the grocery store will
subsequently consist of scanning of shelves. It should be pointed out that this scenario
can be affected by either the consumer’s knowledge of the grocery store’s design and
layout and / or any time pressures that restrict the consumer’s browsing and in-store...
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