Unformatted text preview: that enable
o Need for cues
inferences to personal feelings.
Need to attribute
The need to determine who or what cause the things
that happen to us.
The way which an individual is not dependent on
o Need for independence
others but independent. Culture can influence the
o Need for ego-defense
The need to defend our identities or egos.
o Need for novelty
How one looks for variety and different ideas.
The way which one wants to develop mutually helpful
o Need for affiliation
and satisfying relationships with others.
Source: Adapted from Hawkins, D.I., Best, R.J., Coney, K.A., 2001, Consumer behavior,
8th edition, New York, U.S.A.: McGraw-Hill, p. 363. iv. Maslow’s theory Psychologist Abraham Maslow [Hawkins et al., 2001:363 and Schiffman & Kanuk,
2000:89] postulated that what motivates people to act is unfulfilled needs and that people
meet certain basic needs before being highly motivated to meet other needs. People
acquire their motives through genetic endowment and social interaction, some being
more important than others. Thus, Maslow ranked needs in a five-level hierarchy,
otherwise known as prepotency and is shown in table 2.4 [Kotler, 2000:172]. 39 Table 2.4: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Need Level What it entails Typical factors Self-Actualisation
Needs A desire to know, underwstand, systematise,
organise and construct a system of values. Self-development and
realisation Esteem Needs Striving to achieve a high standing relative to
others, inlcuding mastery and reputation. Self esteem,
recognition, status Social Needs Striving to be accepted by intimate members of
one's family and close associates. Sense of belonging,
love Safety Needs Concern over physical survival. Security, protection,
peace of mind Fundamentals of survival. Food, water, shelter,
sex, sleep Physiological Needs Source: Adapted from Kotler, P., 2000, Marketing management, Millennium edition, New Jersey,
U.S.A.: Prentice Hall, p. 172. In general, according to Maslow’s macro theory, people first try to meet the needs at the
bottom of the hierarchy – the physiological needs, such as the needs for food and rest.
As the needs in the bottom categories become satisfied, people move on to fulfilling
needs in the higher categories, such as the needs for safety, affiliation, esteem and selfactualization [Brassington & Pettitt, 1997:104]. Some studies have concluded that once a consumer has satisfied a need, that particular
need ceases to motivate the consumer. Subsequently another more important need is
then pursuited by the consumer [Kotler, 2000:172]. To illustrate this point, consider a
hungry child. Once the child’s hunger has enticed him to buy and eat a pie, he will no
longer be hungry and therefore not seem interested in pursuing his need for hunger.
However, he might now be thirsty – this need will be his new motivation. Other studies
have taken the view that lower-order needs never stop motivating consumers [Engel et al,
1995:421]. Continuing from the previous example, the child may still want to pursue his
hunger need, as he may also desire to eat a packet of sweets. 4...
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