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Unformatted text preview: 0 Furthermore, the question as to whether convenience retailers are capable of
accomplishing simultaneous need satisfaction can be addressed by Maslow’s theory.
This is evident in cases when consumers are able to satisfy more than one need with a
particular purchase [Hawkins et al., 2001:363]. An example is a child that wears a
‘Billabong’ sweater, which can satisfy his physiological, social and esteem needs. While Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has been criticised as lacking empirical research to
sustain its validity [Churchill & Peter, 1998:143], it can help marketers in many ways.
The model suggests some of the many needs that may motivate consumers to partake in
an exchange. For example, manufacturers of cigarettes need to think not only in terms of
meeting a consumer’s needs for something to smoke, they can also serve affiliation
needs. The marketers of ‘Marlboro’ cigarettes have successfully branded the product as
a symbol of masculinity in the Western world – something a smoker may want in
achieving his affiliation needs [Pechmann & Ratneshwar, 1994: 236]. Whilst the previously mentioned theories will be of some use to this research study, the
author believes that Maslow’s theory will play the lead role in this area of discussion.
The hierarchy of needs theory is a more simplistic approach to motivation, making it
more appealing to the needs and desires of children. Whilst the Millennial Generation
are adapting to ever-changing societies, it is anticipated that Maslow’s approach is still
able to be as effective as it has been since its inception. The only caution to bear in mind
is that of distinguishing between adult needs and children needs – something that this
report hopes to shed some light on. A child, for instance, may believe that sweets are
important whilst an adult may disagree. 2.4.4 Emotions An emotion is referred to as a strong, mental or instinctive feeling that affects consumer’s
behaviour due to its virtually uncontrollable nature [Hawkins et al. 2001:378; Bagozzi et
al., 1999:184; Zeithaml & Bitner, 1996:64; and Bennett, 1995:38]. A few of the physiological changes that take place include increases in perspiration, blood pressure,
heart rate and blood sugar levels. In addition, eye pupil dilation and more rapid breathing
can also be present [Hawkins et al., 2001:378]. 41 All consumers experience different emotions at different times. These emotions are often
triggered by environmental influences [Taylor, 2000: 146]. There are, however, times
when an individual’s internal processes acts as a catalyst, therefore making it an issue
that needs to be addressed as it is another form of internal influences found in the model
of consumer behaviour [Kotler, 2000:556]. The degree of emotion will often depend on the individual and can vary from a mild
emotion to an extreme one. Subsequently associated behaviours, such as anger leading to
violence, come into effect. In addition, an individual also experiences subjec...
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