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Running Header: THE BAY OF PIGS1The Bay of PigsAngela PrimianoCRJ443: Intelligence & Homeland SecurityInstructor:Earl BallouFebruary 24, 2014
Case Study2In this paper, I will do a case study on the Bay of Pigs and why the United States tried toconduct this attack. I will find out what intelligence led to this invasion attempt as well as whatintelligence failures were made which resulted in the failure of the invasion. I will discuss whatimpact the Bay of Pigs had on the United States Intelligence community and what changes wasmade. I will end this paper with any findings I have concluded to if the failure has any affect onhow the U.S. conducts intelligence in today’s world.On April 19, 1961, the United States was ready to be a part of a missile attack. The missionbecame a complete failure and many people were killed during this time. President Kennedy hadwithdrawn his order for land aerial cover a week before the bombing was to occur.On New Year’s Day, 1959, Cuban Rebel forces, led by Fidel Castro, overthrew the existinggovernment led by Fulgencio Batista. Castro immediately reformed Cuba’s economic policy,reducing the power of American companies over Cuba’s industry, as well as threateningAmerican profits and influence in the area. This greatly irritated the United States as a whole,and caused the government, under President Dwight D. Eisenhower, to turn hostile towardsCastro. Just a year after Castro’s rise to power, President Eisenhower was convinced that if thebest interests of the United States were to be fulfilled, the new Cuban government would have tobe abolished. On March 17, 1960, he approved the Central Intelligence Agency’s plan, entitled“A Program of Covert Action Against the Castro Regime.” This program’s purpose was to“bring about the replacement of the Castro regime with one more devoted to the true interests ofthe Cuban people and more acceptable to the U.S. in such a manner as to avoid any appearanceof U.S. intervention.” The plan went on to describe four points: 1) the creation of a responsibleand unified Cuban opposition to the Castro regime located outside of Cuba; 2) the developmentof a means for mass communication to the Cuban people as part of a powerful propaganda
Case Study3offensive; 3) the creation and development of a covert intelligence and action organizationwithin Cuba which would respond to the orders and directions of the exile opposition; and 4) thedevelopment of a paramilitary force outside of Cuba for future guerrilla action.A few months later, in July of 1960, the Prime Minister of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev,spoke of arming Cuba with rockets that would protect it from the U.S. In response, PresidentEisenhower announced that the United States would not “tolerate the establishment of a regime