4 corrections at the state level 18 departments and

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Unformatted text preview: State Level 18 Departments and Divisions of Corrections 18 Centralization Efforts 19 1.5 Corrections: Basic Facts and Figures Inmate Populations and Incarceration Rates Community Supervision 23 sto80731_fm_i-xvi.indd 3 20 20 3/28/13 4:04 PM CONTENTS Conclusion 26 Post-Test 26 Key Ideas 28 Critical Thinking Questions 29 Key Terms 29 Web Resources 30 Additional Resources 30 Chapter 2 The Historical Relationships Among Punishment, Incarceration, and Corrections 33 Introduction Pre-Test 34 34 2.1 Punishment in Pre-Modern Times The Middle Ages 36 The Later Middle Ages The 17th Century 37 35 37 2.2 Punishment in the 18th Century 38 Cesare Beccaria 39 Jeremy Bentham 40 2.3 Punishment in Colonial America Punishment as Deterrent Banishment 42 Capital Offenses 43 42 42 2.4 Punishment in the 19th Century 43 Auburn System Versus Pennsylvania System Regional Variations 46 2.5 Punishment in the 20th Century 44 47 The Progressive Period 48 Individualized Justice 48 Failure 49 The Reformatory Movement 50 Pedagogical Penology 50 The Big House 51 A Renewed Focus on Rehabilitation 52 Community-Based Corrections 53 Corrections Today 54 sto80731_fm_i-xvi.indd 4 3/28/13 4:04 PM CONTENTS Conclusion 55 Post-Test 56 Key Ideas 57 Critical Thinking Questions 58 Key Terms 59 Web Resources 59 Additional Resources 60 Chapter 3 Prisoners’ Rights Introduction 61 62 Pre-Test 63 3.1 Correctional Law: Fundamental Concerns 63 Habeas Corpus 64 Due Process 65 Equal Protection of the Laws 66 Civil Rights 67 3.2 Additional Constitutional Concerns: Restricting Rights and Duty of Care 68 Duty of Care 68 3.3 Brief History of Court Involvement in Prisoners’ Rights 70 The Hands-Off Era 70 The Hands-On Era 71 The Evolving Oversight Era 72 Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA) 73 Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA) 73 3.4 Constitutional Rights 74 Amendment I 74 Amendment IV 75 Amendment V 76 Amendment VI 77 Amendment VIII 78 Amendment XIV 80 Conclusion 81 Post-Test 84 Key Ideas 85 Critical Thinking Questions 86 sto80731_fm_i-xvi.indd 5 3/28/13 4:04 PM CONTENTS Key Terms 86 Web Resources 87 Addit...
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