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CRJ303_Front_Matter - Corrections An Introduction Stan...

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Corrections: An Introduction Stan Stojkovic University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Rick Lovell University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
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Stan Stojkovic Rick Lovell Corrections : An Introduction Bridgepoint Education, Inc. VP of Learning Resources: Beth Aguiar Editorial Director: Steve Wainwright Director of Editorial Technology: Peter Galuardi Sponsoring Editor: Mireille Yanow Development Editors: Carrie Brandt and Craig Leonard Assistant Editor: Kristle Maglunob Senior Editorial Assistant: Nicole Sanchez-Sullivan Editorial Intern: Lindsey Messner Production Editor: Kim Purcell Printing Services: Bordeaux Composition/Illustration: Lachina Publishing Services Cover Design: Ryan Fleetwood Cover Image: Nomad/SuperStock ISBN-10: 1621780732 ISBN-13: 978-1-62178-073-1 Published by Bridgepoint Education, Inc., 13500 Evening Creek Drive North, Suite 600, San Diego, CA 92128 Copyright © 2013, Bridgepoint Education, Inc. All rights reserved. GRANT OF PERMISSION TO PRINT: Bridgepoint Education, Inc., the copyright owner of this material, hereby grants the holder of this publication the right to print these materials for personal use. The holder of this material may print the materials herein for personal use only. Any print, reprint, reproduction or distribution of these materials for commercial use without the express written consent of Bridgepoint Education, Inc. constitutes a violation of the Copyright Law of the United States of 1976 (P.L. 94-553). www.bridgepointeducation.com
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Acknowledgments xiii About the Authors xv Chapter 1 Correctional Aims and Correctional Systems 1 Introduction 2 Pre-Test 3 1.1 Correctional Aims 4 Retribution 4 Deterrence 4 Incapacitation 5 Rehabilitation 5 Reintegration 6 Restoration 7 Competing Correctional Aims 7 1.2 The Correctional Menu 8 Incarceration 9 Community-based Corrections 11 Death Penalty 13 1.3 Corrections at the Federal Level 14 1.4 Corrections at the State Level 18 Departments and Divisions of Corrections 18 Centralization Efforts 19 1.5 Corrections: Basic Facts and Figures 20 Inmate Populations and Incarceration Rates 20 Community Supervision 23 Contents
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CONTENTS Conclusion 26 Post-Test 26 Key Ideas 28 Critical Thinking Questions 29 Key Terms 29 Web Resources 30 Additional Resources 30 Chapter 2 The Historical Relationships Among Punishment, Incarceration, and Corrections 33 Introduction 34 Pre-Test 34 2.1 Punishment in Pre-Modern Times 35 The Middle Ages 36 The Later Middle Ages 37 The 17th Century 37 2.2 Punishment in the 18th Century 38 Cesare Beccaria 39 Jeremy Bentham 40 2.3 Punishment in Colonial America 42 Punishment as Deterrent 42 Banishment 42 Capital Offenses 43 2.4 Punishment in the 19th Century 43 Auburn System Versus Pennsylvania System 44 Regional Variations 46 2.5 Punishment in the 20th Century 47 The Progressive Period 48 Individualized Justice 48 Failure 49 The Reformatory Movement 50 Pedagogical Penology 50 The Big House 51 A Renewed Focus on Rehabilitation 52 Community-Based Corrections 53 Corrections Today 54
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CONTENTS
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