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No pubescent hairs trichomes of various types

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Unformatted text preview: ntire: no teeth or lobes. Serrate: “saw teeth” angled toward tip. Doubly serrate: both large and small serrations. Large Margin Projections Lobed: shallow divisions. Divided: divisions almost to midrib; leaf nearly compound. Pinnately lobed or divided: Palmately lobed or divided: Palmately Lobed Divided Pinnately Lobed Trichomes Glabrous: No hairs or projections on surface. No Pubescent: Hairs (trichomes) of various types. Glabrous Pubescent Internal Structure of a Leaf (P. 593-597; 562-563) Upper epidermis. • Stomata • Cuticle Mesophyll: • Palisade parenchyma • Spongy parenchyma Vascular bundles ('veins') Bundle sheath. Lower epidermis. • Stoma • Cuticle Specialized Grass Leaf Features (p. 598-599; 566-567) Grasses with C-3 (ordinary) photosynthesis: photosynthesis: • Small bundle sheaths. C-4 (modified) PHS: C-4 • Expanded, multi-layer Expanded, bundle sheaths: bundle • “Kranz anatomy”. Bulliform cells: • Large collapsible epidermal Large cells. cells. • lleaf rolls up: water eaf conservation adaptation. conservation Bulliform cells Leaf & Stem Vascular Tissue connections: p. 588-590; 558-559) Axillary bud. Axillary Branch trace. Leaf gap. Leaf trace. Other Stem & Leaf Modifications (p. 607-612; 575-578): Leaf modifications Leaf • Tendrils & spines. spines. • Fleshy storage leaves (in a bulb). • Succulent leaves (water storage). Stem Modifications (p. 575-578): • Succulent stem (cactus). • Tendrils & thorns. • Rhizome (slender underground stem). • Tuber Thick underground storage stem (potato). • Bulb: large underground bud. – Onion, tulip, etc. • Corm: Round underground stem. Other Plant Organs: The Flower (p. 460-463; 437**) Modified shoot with 4 series of specialized “leaves” that bear the reproductive structures. Stamens (Androecium) Stamens Anther Anther Filament Carpels (Gynoecium): Stigma Style Ovary (contains ovules) Petals (Corolla) Sepals (Calyx) Receptacle ** Some references are from Ch. 19. Pistil= “visual unit” of gynoecium: 1 or more carpels. Flower Development (p. 604-608; 571-573) Apical meristem changes: • vegetative growth to reproductive. • Indeterminate to determinate. Initiation of flower-part primordia: • resemble leaf primordia at first. resemble • normal sequence: sepals, petals, stamens, carpels. • regulatory genes determine organ identity. A Developing Flower: (p. 606-607; 572) 1 3 2 4 Flower Variants: 250,00 (or more) species of flowering plants! Terminology to describe features/ variations of flowers Grass: Orchid Rose Daisy Pea Lilly (grass Spikelet) Ovary Position (p. 464; 440) Hypogynous: Ovary is above (superior) to the attachment Ovary to of the other flower parts. of Epigynous: Ovary is below, (inferior) to the attachment Ovary to point of the other flower parts. point Superior ovary Inferior ovary Fusion of Flower Parts Connate (fusion) vs. distinct (no fusion): (no Synsepalous: Sepals fused together. Sympetalous: Petals fused together. Stamens can also be connate in various ways). Corolla Calyx Connate Stamens Carpel Fusion: Moncarpous: one carpel per flower forming a simple pistil Apcarpous: 2 or more carpels in a flower, but each carpel or distinct, forming...
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