Lecture Notes3

Inner berry fruit wall soft with 2 or more seeds many

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Unformatted text preview: Arrangement of the ovules (seeds) in the ovary (fruit). Ovary Ovules Marginal: 1 double-row of ovules. 1 carpel. Parietal: Inner ovary wall. Syncarpous. Free central: Axile: Ovules in center of partitioned Column in center of open ovary ovary. Syncarpous. Fruits that are Fleshy at Maturity Drupe: Derived from 1 carpel. 1 seed. Outer fruit wall fleshy, inner wall a boney ( “pit”) enclosing seed. inner Berry: Fruit wall soft with 2 or more seeds (many variants). Common Berry Variations. Hesperidium: Leathery rind with aromatic oils. Internal sections (=carpels) very evident. Citrus (Rutaceae). sections Pepo: Leathery rind. Melons, pumpkins, squash, etc. (Cucurbitaceae). (Cucurbitaceae). Dry, Indehiscent Fruits (seeds not released at maturity) Achene: Small,1 seed, free from ovary wall. Many plant groups. Cypsela : Achene-like fruit with plume derived from calyx. Typical of sunflower family (Asteraceae). Typical Samara: Winged achenes. Samaras Cypsela Dry, Indehiscent Fruits Caryopsis (grain): 1 seed, fused to ovary wall. Grasses (Poaceae). Includes corn wheat rice, etc! (Poaceae). Nut: Hard, boney fruit wall encloses 1 seed (other ovules aborted). Similar to achene but larger. aborted). Caryopsis Nut Dry, Dehiscent Fruits (Open to release seeds at maturity) Capsule: Split or open in several places & release seeds. Derived from >1 carpel. Many types based on how they open. Many Numerous botanical groups. Dry, Dehiscent Fruits (Open to release seeds at maturity) Folicle: Splits along 1 line of weakness. From 1 carpel. Trumpet creeper, milkweed. Trumpet Legume: Splits along 2 lines of weakness. From 1 carpel. Legume family (Fabaceae). “Fleshy” legumes (green beans, etc.) are harvested immature before they dry. beans, Folicle Separating Fruits Schizocarp: Fruit separates into 1or ½ -carpel sections, each section containing seeds. each Carrot/ parsley family (Apiaceae) -spilts into 2 achenes. Maple (Acer) splits into 2 winged-achenes. “Double fruit” of maple Fruits From Both Ovary & Non-ovary Tissues Accessory fruits: Accessory Strawberry type: Receptacle enlarges & engulfs multiple carpels (apocarpous flower). carpels Pome: Receptacle enlarges, engulfs a syncarpous ovary. (apple pear). Most of fruit = receptacle; ovary = “core”. (apple Fruits From More than 1 Pistil (same Flower) Aggregate fruit: Combined ovaries of an apocarpous flower: Raspberry, Magnolia. Fruits Derived from More than 1 Flower Multiple fruit: Combined ovaries of several flowers (an entire inflorescence). entire Pineapple, fig, mulberry, etc. Supplement: Economic Uses of Wood Use slide show mode Use to comfortably view on screen on The End Version12.09...
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