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Organic compounds with oxygen and sulfur outline

Organic compounds with oxygen and sulfur outline - •...

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CHAPTER 12 REVIEW ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH OXYGEN AND SULFUR Alcohols: contain an –OH group attached to carbon. o Naming: Replace the ending of the alkane name with –ol, (ethane à ethanol). Common names use alkyl group followed by alcohol (ethyl alcohol). o Classifying alcohols: Determined by the number of alkyl groups attached to the carbon bonded to the hydroxyl. Primary: one carbon bonded to carbon with –OH. Secondary: two carbons bonded with carbon with –OH. Tertiary: three carbons bonded to carbon with –OH. o Alcohol solubility: 4 carbons or less are soluble in water. Thiols: The functional group in organic compounds that contain a – SH group. o These have strong odors
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Unformatted text preview: • Ethers: their functional group is an oxygen atom between two carbon atoms. o Used as anesthetics. Flammable. o Ether solubility: 4 carbons or less are water soluble. • Oxidation reactions: 1) loss of hydrogen, 2) increased number of C-O bonds. o Alkane à primary alcohol à aldehyde à carboxylic acid Primary alcohols à aldehyde Secondary alcohols à ketone Tertiary alcohol à no reaction o Thiols à disulfide (sulfur bridge) • Reduction reactions: 1) gain hydrogen, 2) decreased number of C-O bonds. o Carboxylic acid à aldehyde à primary alcohol à alkane • Tollen’s test: silver mirror precipitate forms in aldehydes are present....
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