CHEMISTRY 120 – CHAPTER 10 – REVIEW Introduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes • Organic: a chemical containing carbon. o Characteristics: covalent bonds, low mp, low bp, flammable, non-polar, non-electrolytes. o Carbon VSEPR model: 4 bonding pairs whose bond angle is 109° ( tetrahedral shape). • Alkanes: organic compounds that, 1) contain only carbon and hydrogen, have only single bonds. o Molecular formula: C n H n+2 (n = number of carbon atoms) o Nomenclature: name ends in –ane. Prefixes: 1 = methane, 2 = ethane, 3 = propane, 4 = butane, 5 = pentane…. . o Cycloalkanes: have 2 fewer hydrogens than open chain alkanes. Nomenclature: prefix alkane name with cyclo. o C 1 to C 4 alkanes: gas, used as heating fuels. o C 5 to C 8 alkanes: liquid, used in gasoline. o C 9 to C 17 : liquids with high boiling points, kerosene, jet fuel. o C 18+ alkanes: waxes, seal moisture in/out of fruits. • Structural isomers:
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course CHEM 231 taught by Professor Hanover during the Spring '08 term at Lansing.