CHEMISTRY 120 – CHAPTER 10 – REVIEWIntroduction to Organic Chemistry: Alkanes•Organic: a chemical containing carbon.oCharacteristics: covalent bonds, low mp, low bp, flammable, non-polar, non-electrolytes.oCarbon VSEPR model: 4 bonding pairs whose bond angle is 109° (tetrahedral shape).•Alkanes: organic compounds that, 1) contain only carbon and hydrogen, have only single bonds.oMolecular formula: CnHn+2(n = number of carbon atoms)oNomenclature: name ends in –ane.Prefixes: 1 = methane, 2 = ethane, 3 = propane, 4 = butane, 5 = pentane…..oCycloalkanes: have 2 fewer hydrogens than open chain alkanes.Nomenclature: prefix alkane name with cyclo.oC1to C4alkanes: gas, used as heating fuels.oC5to C8alkanes: liquid, used in gasoline.oC9to C17: liquids with high boiling points, kerosene, jet fuel.oC18+alkanes: waxes, seal moisture in/out of fruits.•Structural isomers: Same formula but different structure (arrangement of atoms).
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