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Unformatted text preview: rtations to ghettos rapidly increased. Ghettos were enclosed districts of a city in which the Germans forced the Jewish population to live under miserable conditions.
Ghettos isolated Jews by separating Jewish communities both from the population as a whole
and from neighboring Jewish communities. Jews were no longer free to go about their daily lives
but were forced to live in unsanitary conditions and subsist with extremely limited food rations.
The Warsaw Ghetto, established on October 12, 1940, was the largest Jewish ghetto, in both
area and population. There, more than 350,000 Jews—about 30 percent of the city’s
population—were eventually conﬁned in about 2.4 percent of the city’s total area.
Other major urban areas inside and outside of Poland established ghettos. Some of the largest in
Poland were in the cities of Kovno and Lodz. Other large ghettos were in Vilnius, Lithuania
and Terezín, Czechoslovakia.
The Nazis also created the Judenrat, or Jewish Councils, within each ghetto. The Judenrat
was often comprised of Jewish leaders from their respective communities who were entrus...
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