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Unformatted text preview: o, (operating from December 1941 - March 1943) used mobile gas vans to murder Jews en masse. Jews were sent upon arrival
directly to the gas chambers at Belzec (operating from March 17, 1942 - December 1942),
Sobibor (April 1942 - October 14, 1943, shut down following an inmate revolt), and Treblinka
(operating from July 23, 1942 - April 1943).
At the largest camp, Auschwitz-Birkenau, established on April 27, 1940, three camps in one
existed: Auschwitz I, a concentration and labor camp; Auschwitz II, or Auschwitz-Birkenau,
where more than a million Jews perished; and Auschwitz III, known as Buna-Monowitz (taking
its name from the Buna synthetic-rubber factory at Monowice, which slave laborers built for I.
G. Farben, the German industrial ﬁrm.) The sixth, Majdanek was a slave labor and death camp
and was in operation from October 1941 until it was the ﬁrst liberated camp by Soviet troops on
July 24, 1944.
The Nazis systematically murdered over three million Jews in the extermination camps. In its
totality, the “Final Solution” resulted in the murder of approximately six million Jews, two-thirds
of the Jews living in Europe before the start of the war; up to 250,000 Gypsies (or Roma and
Sinti people; up to 10,000 homosexuals; and thousands of Communists, labor union leaders,
Jehovah Witnesses, and the mentally and physically disabled....
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