Energy and Matter Outline

Energy and Matter Outline - o Solids: definite volume and...

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CHEMISTRY 120 – CHAPTER 2 – REVIEW Energy and Matter Potential energy: stored energy. Kinetic energy: the energy of matter in motion. Calorimeter: instrument used to measure heat loss or gained from a reaction. Units of energy: 1 calorie = 4.184 Joules (exact), 1 kJ = 1000 J o Food energy units: 1 C alorie = 1000 calories Calories in Food: energy provided by 1 gram of the following food groups. o Carbohydrates: 4 Cal/gram o Protein: 4 Cal/gram o Fat: 9 Cal/gram Temperature: how hot or cold something feels. o Fahrenheit: °F = 1.8C + 32, 1 °F is smaller than 1°C o Celsius: °C = (°F – 32)/1.8 o Kelvin: K, C + 273 = K Specific Heat: the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 °C. o Units: J/g°C, or cal/g°C. o Equation: Heat, H = specific heat x mass x ΔT , H = s . m . ΔT , ΔT = T final T initial States of matter:
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Unformatted text preview: o Solids: definite volume and shape, particles fixed but vibrate in position. o Liquids: definite volume and shape (container), particles close but mobile. o Gases: indefinite volume and shape, particles far apart and move fast (500m/s). Changes of state: occur with absorption or emission of heat but no temperature change. o Melting (solid to liquid), Freezing (liquid to solid). Heat of fusion: amount of heat absorbed/released when 1 gram freezes/melts. o Sublimation (solid to a gas), deposition (gas to a solid) o Boiling (entire liquid to gas), evaporation (surface molecules vaporize to a gas) o Condensation: gas molecules lose energy and liquefy (gas to a liquid) Heat of vaporization: Amount of heat needed to vaporize 1 gram of liquid at BP. Amount of heat lost when 1 gram of vapor condenses at BP....
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