Lab 8 Handout

Thetemporalisorginatesonthebraincasestartingaboutthele

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Unformatted text preview: r.
In
addition,
reptiles
have
a
more
 efficient
excretory
system,
which
helps
retain
more
water.

 Different
groups
of
reptiles
also
show
patterns
of
movement
and
support
that
help
them
in
 terrestrial
environments.
Most
reptiles
have
their
limbs
arranged
in
a
sprawling
posture,
out
 to
the
side
of
the
body.
Various
muscles
are
associated
with
the
lungs
to
increase
the
 amount
of
oxygen
these
animals
can
obtain,
a
trait
that
allows
them
to
be
more
active.
 Finally,
reptiles
have
diverged
to
many
types
of
feeding
and
have
shown
an
increase
in
jaw
 musculature
that
allows
them
better
control
of
prey
when
hunting.
Claws
and
nails
evolved
 with
the
full
move
to
land.

 1.
Early
tetrapod
lineages
had
a
sprawling
gait.
Notice
the
placement
of
the
limb
girdles
in
 relation
to
the
axial
skeleton
(vertebral
column).
How
do
you
think
this
is
reflected
in
the
 movement
of
the
vertebral
column
while
amphibians
and
reptiles
are
walking?











 2.
Look
at
the
articulated
turtle
skeleton.
What
do
you
notice
about
the
rib
cage
and
the
 limb
girdles?
Have
you
seen
this
arrangement
in
any
of
the
other
articulated
skeletons
out
 in
lab
today?




























 Birds
 Are
birds
really
living
feathery
dinosaurs?
Many
scientists
think
so.
Birds
have
been
called
 “glorified
reptiles.”
The
earliest
known
bird
fossil,
Archaeopteryx,
retains
many
reptilian
 characteristics.
In
fact,
if
evidence
of
feathers
hadn’t
been
preserved,
Archaeopteryx,
 probably
would
have
been
classified
as
a
dinosaur.

 What
distinguishes
birds
from
their
dinosaur
relatives
are
the
adaptations
associated
with
 flight,
including
the
morphological
requirements
for
flight
(wings,
feathers,
muscle
 attachment,
weight
reduction)
as
well
as
adaptations
associated
with
efficient
acquisition
of
 energy
to
fuel
the
high
energy
demands
of
flight.
Birds
are
homeothermic
endotherms
 (body
heat
is
generated
from
internal
sources,
and
body
temperature
is
kept
at
a
relatively
 high
and
constant
level,
30‐40
C
for
birds).

 Flight
has
allowed
birds
to
expand
to
many
different
niches.
The
requirements
for
flight
 have
limited
the
basic
morphology
of
birds
(hollow
bones
with
supports,
concentration
of
 muscle
mass
on
the
ventral
side
of
the
bo...
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