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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 8: Innovations - 1 - A Society of Readers Movement from oral transmission of knowledge to print. Printing presses around 1450. By 1800, Europe is most literate area by far. Leads to major social changes. Causes of literacy. Urbanization. Reformation. Diffusion of technology. Newspapers in the eighteenth century. The Demand for Reform Luthers expanded critique Closure of monasteries Translations of Bible into vernacular End of priestly authority, especially the Pope Return to biblical text for authority German princes interested Opportunities for assertion of local control Support for reform spreads throughout Germany Tensions on the path to reform: witch hunts Increased skepticism of the church and scientific inquiry do not proceed uniformly. Most prominent in regions of tension between Catholics and Protestants Late 15th century development in belief in Devil and human assistants 16th-17th centuries approximately 110,000 people put on trial, some 60,000 put to death Vast majority females, usually single, widowed Held accountable for crop failures, miscarriages, etc. The Consolidation of Sovereign States Protestant Reformation provides cover for local princes to assert greater independence Unlike China, India, Ottoman Empire, Europe does not develop as single empire, rather individual states Political Innovations in Europe: Rise of Absolute Monarchies European monarchies seek to take power from the nobility.European monarchies seek to take power from the nobility....
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This note was uploaded on 04/10/2008 for the course HISTORY 2.2 taught by Professor Ebert during the Spring '08 term at CUNY Brooklyn.
- Spring '08