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Unformatted text preview: Navajo Language Shift
3/19/08 Anthrcul/Amcult/Ling 461 Overview Place & Time Theorizing Navajoness Example: Din College Navajoization SNBH Din Bikyah History Codetalking Language Encountering Hegemony Struggling to be `Bicultural' Din Bikyah Navajo tribal lands located in NM, AZ & UT Tribal population: approx. 225,000 members http://www.navajonationcouncil.org/profile.htm Navajo Nation History Migrated from North around 14th or 15th c. 1864: "The Long Walk" 18641868: incarcerated at a concentration camp at Hwldi (Ft. Sumner) in New Mexico Treaty of 1868: returned to their land; set stage for future negotiations with U.S. government 1923: Established tribal government (business council) 1924: U.S. citizenship 193236: Stock Reduction Program 1937: BIAestablished tribal council (rejected IRA in 1934) 1942: Navajo code talkers 1969: passed resolution to be officially the "Navajo Nation"
http://www.navajo.org/index.htm Codetalking The Code used by the Navajo Code Talkers created messages by first translating Navajo words into English, then using the first letter of each English word to decipher the meaning. Because different Navajo words might be translated into different English words for the same letter, the code was especially difficult to decipher. For example, for the letter "A," the Code Talker could use "wollachee" (ant), "belasana," (apple), or "tsenill" (ax.) Some military terms that had no equivalent in Navajo were assigned their own code word. The word America, for example, was "Nehemah" (Our mother). Submarine became "beshlo" (iron fish). http://bingaman.senate.gov/code_talkers/code/code.html Din Bizaad Southern Athabaskan language Several dialects Approximately 150,000 speakers Mostdocumented Native American language http://www.ktnnonline.com/ http://www.u.arizona.edu/~kchief/Animals.html Encountering Hegemony Hegemony: Counterhegemony: "the consent of the governed through ideological persuasion" (Philips 1998) Ongoing (indirect) coercive project that never reaches completion In opposition to dominant, hegemonic "reshapings" or practices & meanings Nonoppositional strategy; coinciding but unrelated to dominant hegemony Alternative hegemony: Struggling to be Bicultural Mimesis Alterity "sameness" Adopting practices & beliefs of dominant group Ex.: Tribal government, style of dress, dietary staples "differentness" Juxtaposition of indigenous practices & beliefs with dominant group's Ex.: institutionalized cultural revitalization, reclaim positive image Din College http://www.dinecollege.edu/ Established in 1968 First accredited 2year tribal college Din Teacher Education Program; first degrees awarded in 1998 (partnered w/ ASU) Navajoization Rough Rock Demonstration School, a community run bilingual school, set precedent Development & Use of Navajo curriculum Emphasize Navajo values, especially SNBH (the path of beauty & balance) Sa'h Naagh Bik'eh Hzhn East thinking & analysis South planning & praying West implementation North evaluation & assessment Think about... What is House's goal? Her conception of culture? What kinds of data does she use? How does her discourse approach compare with Patrick's? What was wellcovered? Anything missing? How might a person go about "decolonizing" or "Navajo izing" educational practices? ...
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- Winter '08