Unformatted text preview: Language contact & change
Jan. 2830, 2008 Anthrcul/Amcult/Ling 461 Overview Language change What do they look at when they do? How and why do linguists and anthropologists care? Language contact: scenarios & terms Some examples Language "internal" (Nichols) Language "external" (Sapir, Bakker, Basso) Why do linguists and anthropologists care? Language universals Population movement and origins Rules (general patterns or processes of change) Typological generalizations Predictions & possible worlds Migration routes Relationships between groups and languages What do they look at when they do? Language change Internal: Phonological changes over time; eg. Great Vowel Shift Reduction in structure; eg. Loss of case in English Historical reconstruction; eg. ProtoAthabaskan Language change External: Borrowing of words Changed meaning Mixing of "codes" and/or grammatical structures Shifting/Loss of entire codes Language Contact Possible scenarios & practices: Multilingualism Lingua Francas: pidgins, creoles, jargons Acculturation/Assimilation/Colonization Codeswitching & codemixing Language Contact (cont.) Possible changes Lexical/semantic Loanwords (borrowings) Loan blends Loan translations (calques) Semantic extension Grammatical/structural Example: Lake Miwok Spoken in California (Utian) Borrowing and structural change Larger inventory of consonants than other Miwokan languages Lexical borrowings: P, t, t , k, c , P, p', b, t, t', d c c', k, k' (aspirated, glottalized, & voiced) T'ele = t'ella?, `to cut open or slice,' from Hill Patwin (Wintu) P'cci = p'ota:s, `woman' from Nomlaki (Wintu) Example: Chinook Jargon An American Indian pidgin Spoken in Pacific Northwest Grammatical sources: Vocabulary: French, English, Nootka & Lower Chinook sik `ash/wood' isik `paddle' (LC) Wik `not' `wik' not (Nt) Labb `beard' la barbe (Fr) lman `husband' old man (En) similar grammar to Nootka & Lower Chinook, eg. L, p', k', x Na question marker Lus (`good') mark imperative Example: Mountain Pima Spoken in Mexico UtoAztecan language Borrowing (Spanish): Buur burro Kaw caballa Domk domingo New derivations: Extension: Haa't gagardam `customer' (thing buyer) Gaat bow, gun ?ak river, irrigation ditch ?o?oon drawing, letter From readings... Bakker on Michif Language "intertwining" Terms: Basso on Western Apache Lexeme Set extension Relexification Fossilization Mtis Semantic extension Terms: Possible Worlds: Bakker New nation/mixed identity hypothesis Trade language hypothesis Laziness hypothesis Separate task hypothesis Pointing hypothesis Verbnoun mixing hypothesis Codemixing hypothesis Relexification hypothesis Difficult Parts hypothesis Concepts Mixed language = "one that shows positive genetic similarities, in significant numbers, with two different languages." (Bakker 1997:195) Language intertwining = emergence of a mixed language in relation to the emergence of a new ethnic group through marriage ...
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- Winter '08
- Lingua franca, Creole language, Pidgin, Mixed language, hypothesis Laziness hypothesis