Lecture+1-7-08%2C+Linguistic+Anthropology[1] - Linguistic...

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Unformatted text preview: Linguistic Anthropology January 7, 2008 Anthrcul 461/Amcult 461/Ling 461 Student Info Name, major(s)/minor(s) Related coursework Cultural interests/experiences Linguistic interests/experiences Other related interests/experiences Email Reason(s) for/Interest in this course Registered: yes or no Today's Agenda Introduction Defining culture, society & language What's linguistic anthropology? Historical overview of Linguistic Anthropology Early Research in Native North America: The Beginning of the Americanist Tradition Anthropology From Kottak, Intro.: "Anthropology involves the study of human culture, the socially shared and learned system of beliefs, values, customs, language, and material goods necessary for people to function as members of a particular social group. Twentiethcentury American anthropology is distinguished by the fourfield approach. These four fields are archaeology, the exploration of past human cultures through their material remains; linguistics, the study of language; physical anthropology, the study of human biology and evolution; and, cultural anthropology, the study of the customs and traditions of human social groups. The descriptive accounts of cultures written by anthropologists are called ethnography." Culture Franz Boas (1920): "Culture embraces all the manifestations of social habits of a community, the reactions of the individual as affected by the habits of the group in which he lives, and the products of human activities as determined by these habits." Elinor Ochs (1996): "Culture is ...a set of socially recognized and organized practices and theories for acting, feeling, and knowing along with their material and institutional products, associated with membership in a social group." Society Social structure; the ways in which people organize or group themselves; how people (and other primates) understand and/or define group membership Robert Murphy: an organized aggregate of people (where organized refers the internal, specialized divisions that operate together within a society) that enjoys some degree of economic and political autonomy, and which recruits most new members through the procreation of its own people Language an innate system of knowledge; grammatical system a tool for analyzing social and cultural phenomena; as a dimension of culture; a cultural phenomenon like religion, art, music, subsistence a system of sounds organized in a structured way for which we are uniquely designed to acquire and use in interactions with other people; language is a shared form of communication where its use is culturally mediated, but its acquisition is largely innate Linguistic Anthropology focus on the interrelationship between linguistic and sociocultural phenomena the dialogic ways in which each reproduces and transforms the other through interaction Historical Overview 1880's1900's: the Americanist tradition emerges; Boas, Powell, Dorsey, Murie 1900's1950's: linguistic relativity and ethnosemantics; Sapir, Whorf, Goodenough, Conklin, Lenneberg 1960's1980's: the ethnography of speaking; Hymes, Gumperz, Bauman, Sherzer 1990's: modernity, ideology, and language; Irvine, Gal, Schieffelin, Briggs & Bauman Early Research: The Americanist Tradition Began with Franz Boas & his students fieldwork in North America (and beyond) work with/in/for communities documentation for preservation ("salvage ethnography") Cultural differences attributed to history, not race all people as equal (counter the evolutionist approach to human civilizations) http://titus.unifrankfurt.de/didact/karten/amer/namerim.htm ...
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