that describe the programs and how they are to be

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Unformatted text preview: mb, smart and intelligent terminals 141. Write the full forms of the following abbreviations: (a) GUI (b) CAD (c) OCR (d) OMR (e) UPC (0) MICR (g) VDT (h) CRT (i) COM (j) CGA (k) EGA (1) VGA (m) LCD (n) DMA (o) SCSI (P) DPI (q) CPS (r) LPM (s) NLQ (t) NTQ Chapter 10 Computer Software The terms hardware and software are frequently mentioned in connection with computers. Hardware is the term given to the machinery itself and to the various individual pieces of equipment. It refers to the physical devices of a computer system. Thus, the input, storage, processing, control, and output devices are hardware. In fact, what we have described so far in the previous chapters is actually the hardware of computer systems. The term "software" will be introduced in this chapter and will be discussed at length in the next few chapters. WHAT IS SOFTWARE? A computer cannot do anything on its own. It must be instructed to do a desired job. Hence it is necessary to specify a sequence of instructions that a computer must perform to solve a problem. Such a sequence of instructions written in a language that can be understood by a computer is called a computer program. It is the program that controls the activity of processing by the computer and the computer performs precisely what the program wants it to do. When a computer is using a particular program, we say it is running or executing that program. The term software refers to the set of computer programs, procedures, and associated documents (flowcharts, manuals, etc.) that describe the programs and how they are to be used. To be precise, software means a collection of programs whose objective is to enhance the capabilities of the hardware. A software package is a group of programs that solve a specific problem or perform a specific type of job. For example, a word-processing package may contain programs for text editing, text formatting, drawing graphics, spelling checking, etc. Thus a multipurpose computer system has several software packages, one each for every type of job it can perform. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN...
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