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multiprogramming. However, the main difference between these two types of
systems is that supercomputers primarily address processor-bound applications
whereas mainframe systems are oriented to input/output-bound applications.
8. Supercomputers use multiprocessing and parallel processing technologies to
solve complex problems faster, and hence they are also known as parallel
computers or parallel processing systems. Moreover, modern supercomputers
employ hundreds of processors and are also known as massively parallel
9. Parallel computers are of two types - shared memory parallel computer and
distributed memory parallel computer. In a shared memory parallel computer,
there is a systemwide primary memory that is shared by all the processors and any
communication between the processors usually takes place through the shared
memory. On the other hand, in a distributed memory parallel computer, the
processors do not share memory, and each processor has its own local memory.
All communication between the processors is done by passing messages across the
network that interconnects the processors. Hence distributed memory parallel
computers are also known as message passing parallel computers.
10. A client-server computing environment is comprised of multiple clients, one
or more servers, and a network. A client is generally a single-user PC or
workstation that provides a highly user-friendly interface to the end user. It runs
client processes, which send service requests to the server. A server is generally a
relatively large computer that manages a shared resource and provides a set of
shared user services to the clients. It runs the server process, which services client
requests for use of the resource managed by the server. The network may be a
single LAN or WAN or an internet of networks.
11. A set of computers interconnected together to form a client-server computing
environment is collectively known as a distributed computing system or
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.
- Spring '14