2 character multiple related bits are combined to

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Unformatted text preview: merge 43. Write short notes on the following with reference to a spreadsheet package: (a) Cell contents (c) Graphics feature (b) Range of cells (d) Relative and absolute cell addresses Chapter 16 Business Data Processing This chapter deals with the basic concepts of business data processing. In this chapter, you will learn about the following: 1. Difference between data and information and how data processing converts raw data into useful information. 2. The data storage hierarchy commonly used to facilitate data processing. 3. The standard methods of organizing data. 4. The basic concepts of database systems. 5. The modern concepts in database technology. WHAT IS DATA PROCESSING? Data is a collection of facts - unorganized but able to be organized into useful information. A collection of sales orders, employee time sheets, and class attendance cards are a few examples. Data can be manipulated to produce output, such as bills, employee salary slips, and student attendance reports. This output, which can be used to help people make decisions, is called information. That is, information is data arranged in an order and form that is useful to the people who receive it. Processing, in general terms, is a series of actions or operations that converts some input into useful output. When we speak of data processing, the input is data, and the output is useful information. Hence, data processing is defined as a series of actions or operations that converts data into useful information. It consists of three sub-activities - capturing the input data, manipulating the data, and producing the output results. A data processing system includes the resources such as people, procedures, and devices that are used to accomplish the processing of data for producing desirable output. Thus, data is the raw material of information and just as raw materials are transformed into finished products by a manufacturing process, raw data is transformed into information by data processing. DATA STORAGE HIERARCHY In data processing, storage of data is often conceptualized as a data storage hierarchy, which normally consists of the following six levels (see Figure 16.1). Level 0 - Bit - A single binary digit (0 or 1). Level 1 - Character -Multiple related bits are combined to form a character (...
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