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Unformatted text preview: dent on the application. Due to data dependence problem, whenever there is
a need to add, delete, or change data formats, the application program must also be
changed. Data dependence problem also causes incompatibility among data files from different applications due to which these data files cannot be linked if such a
5. Limited data security flexibility. A file-oriented approach normally offers filelevel data security feature. That is, data access restrictions can be enforced only
for an entire file and not for a record or a field of data item.
Dissatisfied with these limitations of the file-oriented approach of organizing data,
researchers began looking for a better method of organizing data to consolidate
activities. Their efforts resulted in the database-oriented approach for organizing
data. In this approach, data from multiple related files is integrated together in the
form of a database, which has the following properties:
1. It provides greater query flexibility.
2. It reduces data redundancy.
3. It solves data integrity (inconsistency) problem.
4. It makes data independent of the application programs. That is, fields can be
added, changed, and deleted from the database without affecting existing
5. It also includes data security features at database level, record level, and even
at field level to provide greater flexibility of restricted data access.
In the database-oriented approach of organizing data, a set of programs is provided
to facilitate the users in organizing, creating, deleting, updating, and manipulating
their data in a database. All these programs together form a Database Management
System (DBMS). Later in this chapter, we will have a look at the commonly
supported features in a typical database management system.
FILE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
In the file-oriented approach of organizing data, a set of programs is provided to
facilitate the users in organizing, creating, deleting, updating, and manipulating
their files. All these programs together form a File Management, System (FMS).
The commonly supported features in a typical file management system are
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.
- Spring '14