2 master file a master file contains all the current

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Unformatted text preview: dent on the application. Due to data dependence problem, whenever there is a need to add, delete, or change data formats, the application program must also be changed. Data dependence problem also causes incompatibility among data files from different applications due to which these data files cannot be linked if such a need arises. 5. Limited data security flexibility. A file-oriented approach normally offers filelevel data security feature. That is, data access restrictions can be enforced only for an entire file and not for a record or a field of data item. Dissatisfied with these limitations of the file-oriented approach of organizing data, researchers began looking for a better method of organizing data to consolidate activities. Their efforts resulted in the database-oriented approach for organizing data. In this approach, data from multiple related files is integrated together in the form of a database, which has the following properties: 1. It provides greater query flexibility. 2. It reduces data redundancy. 3. It solves data integrity (inconsistency) problem. 4. It makes data independent of the application programs. That is, fields can be added, changed, and deleted from the database without affecting existing programs. 5. It also includes data security features at database level, record level, and even at field level to provide greater flexibility of restricted data access. In the database-oriented approach of organizing data, a set of programs is provided to facilitate the users in organizing, creating, deleting, updating, and manipulating their data in a database. All these programs together form a Database Management System (DBMS). Later in this chapter, we will have a look at the commonly supported features in a typical database management system. FILE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM In the file-oriented approach of organizing data, a set of programs is provided to facilitate the users in organizing, creating, deleting, updating, and manipulating their files. All these programs together form a File Management, System (FMS). The commonly supported features in a typical file management system are described below. File Types Data file...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.

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