3 thousands of vacuum tubes that were used emitted

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Unformatted text preview: . 2. They were too bulky in size requiring large rooms for installation. 3. Thousands of vacuum tubes that were used emitted large amount of heat and burnt out frequently. Hence the rooms/areas in which these computers were located had to be properly airconditioned. 4. Each vacuum tube consumed about half a watt of power. Since a computer typically used more than ten thousand vacuum tubes, the power consumption of these computers was very high. 5. As vacuum tubes used filaments, they had a limited life. Since thousands of vacuum tubes were used in making one computer, these computers were prone to frequent hardware failures, their mean time between failures being as low as an hour. 6. Due to such low mean time between failures, these computers required almost constant maintenance. 7. In these computers, thousands of individual components had to be assembled manually by hand into functioning circuits. Hence commercial production of these computers was difficult and costly. 8. Since these computers were difficult to program and use, they had limited commercial use. Second Generation (1955-1964) A new electronic switching device called transistor [see Figure 1.2(b)] was invented at Bell Laboratories in 1947 by John Bardeen, Willian Shockley, and Walter Brattain. Transistors soon proved to be a much better electronic switching device than the vacuum tubes due to their following properties: 1. They were more rugged and easier to handle than tubes since they were made of germanium semiconductor material rather than glass. 2. They were highly reliable as compared to tubes since they had no part like a filament, which could burn out. 3. They could switch much faster (almost ten times faster) than tubes. Hence switching circuits made of transistors could operate much faster than their counterparts made of tubes. 4. They consume almost one-tenth the power consumed by a tube. 5. They were much smaller in size than a tube. 6. They were less expensive to produce. 7. They dissipated much less heat as compared to vacuum tubes. The second-generation...
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