Unformatted text preview: in use because each was
designed for different specific purposes. We will see in the discussion below that
different high-level languages have different purposes and areas of applicability.
FORTRAN stands for FORmula TRANslation. It is one of the oldest high-level
language. It was designed to solve scientific and engineering problems and is
currently the most popular language amongst scientists and engineers. It was
originally developed by John Backus and his team at IBM (International Business
Machine Corporation) for its 704 computer in 1957. Since then it has undergone
several revisions and has been evolving into a wider and more useful language
The original version of FORTRAN that was developed by John Backus and his
team was soon followed by a version that was popular as FORTRAN II. The next
popular advanced version was FORTRAN IV. In order to make FORTRAN
language machine independent (that is, to allow a program that was written for one
computer system to be run on another computer system), FORTRAN IV was
standardized by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in the year 1966.
With this, FORTRAN became the first standardized language.
In 1977, an updated version of FORTRAN IV, called FORTRAN 77, was released
and standardized by ANSI. This version was oriented towards structured programming approach and had several new features for this. Some of the
important ones are:
1. Character string handling.
2. Better constructs for expressing program loops.
3. An IF statement with an optional ELSE clause.
FORTRAN 90 is the latest version of FORTRAN standardized by ANSI. It again
has many new features as compared to FORTRAN 77. Some of the important ones
1. A collection of built-in functions for array operations. These include
DOTPRODUCT, MATMUL TRANSPOSE, MAXVAL, MINVAL, PRODUCT,
and SUM, whose meanings are obvious from their names to users from the
scientific and engineering community.
2. Facility to dynamically allocate and deallocate arrays. This is a radical
departure from earlier FORTRANs, which all suppo...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.
- Spring '14