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Unformatted text preview: AM in it, but when
later models came out with up to 16 megabytes, the inability to run programs
larger than 640 Kbytes became a major limitation.
4. It was designed for the 16-bit CPUs that Intel was making in the early and
middle 1980s. It could not take advantage of the 32-bit CPUs that were later made
It restricted the user to eight-character file names with three-character
extensions. Due to the lack of flexibility of using long file names, users often
found it inconvenient to choose appropriate file names. No major operating system
places this restriction on its users.
6. It had a command-line interface that some people found difficult to use and
hard to learn.
Copy a file
del or erase
Delete/Erase/Remove a file
rename or ren mv
Rename a file or move it from its old name to
new name dir
Display a directory listing
mkdir or md mkdir
Create/Make a new directory
chdir or cd
Change the current working directory
Remove an empty directory
Display or change the current date
Display (type/catenate) contents of a file
Figure 14.28. Illustrating some of the shell commands. Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows operating system was developed by Microsoft to overcome
the limitations of its own MS-DOS operating system. The first successful version
of this operating system was Windows 3.0, which was released in 1990. The
subsequently released versions were Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows
2000. The numbers associated with these released versions indicate their year of
release. The main features of Microsoft Windows are as follows:
1. Its native interface is a GUI. Hence it is easier for a new user to learn and use
2. Microsoft Windows was designed to be not just an operating system but also a
complete operating environment. That is, Microsoft Windows programs conform
to a standard way of working.
For example, a Microsoft Windows word
processor works similarly the way a Microsoft Windows spreadsheet (or any other
type of Windows program) works....
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- Spring '14