46 spooling simultaneous peripheral operation on line

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Unformatted text preview: ccess to the requested resource. The three basic approaches to user authentication are proof by knowledge, proof by possession, and proof by property. 37. Access control mechanisms are used to prohibit a user/process from accessing those resources/information that he/she/it is not authorized to access. 38. Cryptography is a means of protecting private information against unauthorized access in those situations where it is difficult to ensure access control. The basic idea behind this security technique is that if it is not possible to ensure access control, it is better to prevent comprehension of information. 39. The command interpretation module (known as command interpreter) of an operating system serves as an interface for the user to communicate with the computer via its operating system. The two broad categories of user interfaces supported by various operating systems are command-line interface and graphical user interface. 40. The kernel of an operating system is its central controlling part that implements the most primitive of the system's functions. It is the only part of an operating system that a user cannot replace or modify. 41. Those modules of an operating system that are always kept in the system's main memory are called resident modules and those that are kept on hard disk are called non-resident modules. The non-resident modules are loaded into the memory on demand, that is, as and when they are needed for execution. 42. A real-time system is a system that must satisfy the requirement of producing the desired results before a certain deadline. Operating systems that are designed to handle the processing requirements of real-time systems are called real-time operating systems. 43. Computer systems consisting of interconnected, multiple computers are called distributed computing systems. 44. The operating systems commonly used for distributed computing systems can be broadly classified into two types - network operating systems and distributed operating systems. In cas...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.

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