7 they were totally general purpose machines suitable

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Unformatted text preview: ger primary memory and secondary storage devices as compared to second-generation computers. 7. They were totally general-purpose machines suitable for both scientific and commercial applications. 8. Their manufacturing did not require manual assembly of individual components into electronic circuits, resulting in reduced human labor and cost involved at assembly stage. Hence commercial production of these systems was easier and cheaper. However, highly sophisticated technology and expensive setup was required for the manufacture of IC chips. 9. Standardization of high-level programming languages allowed programs written for one computer to be easily ported to and executed on another computer. 10. Timesharing operating system allowed interactive usage and simultaneous use of these systems by a large number of users. 11. Timesharing operating system helped in drastically improving the productivity of programmers cutting down the time and cost of program development by several fold. 12. Timesharing operating system also made on-line systems feasible, resulting in the usage of these systems for new on-line applications. 13. Unbundling of software from hardware gave users of these systems an opportunity to invest only in software of their need and value. 14. The concept of upward compatible family of computers allowed the users of these systems to easily upgrade their system without worrying about converting all their existing software. 15. The minicomputers of the third-generation made computers affordable even by smaller companies. Fourth Generation (1975-1989) The average number of electronic components packed on a silicon chip doubled each year after 1965. This progress soon led to the era of large scale integration (LSI) when it was possible to integrate over 30,000 electronic components on a single chip, followed by very large scale integration (VLSI) when it was possible to integrate about one million electronic components on a single chip. This progress led to a dramatic development - the creation of a microprocessor. A microprocessor contains all the circuits needed to perform ari...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.

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