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Unformatted text preview: ger primary memory and secondary storage devices as
compared to second-generation computers.
They were totally general-purpose machines suitable for both scientific and
8. Their manufacturing did not require manual assembly of individual components into
electronic circuits, resulting in reduced human labor and cost involved at assembly stage.
Hence commercial production of these systems was easier and cheaper. However, highly
sophisticated technology and expensive setup was required for the manufacture of IC
9. Standardization of high-level programming languages allowed programs written for
one computer to be easily ported to and executed on another computer.
10. Timesharing operating system allowed interactive usage and simultaneous use of
these systems by a large number of users.
11. Timesharing operating system helped in drastically improving the productivity of
programmers cutting down the time and cost of program development by several fold.
12. Timesharing operating system also made on-line systems feasible, resulting in the
usage of these systems for new on-line applications.
13. Unbundling of software from hardware gave users of these systems an opportunity to
invest only in software of their need and value.
14. The concept of upward compatible family of computers allowed the users of these
systems to easily upgrade their system without worrying about converting all their
15. The minicomputers of the third-generation made computers affordable even by
Fourth Generation (1975-1989)
The average number of electronic components packed on a silicon chip doubled each
year after 1965. This progress soon led to the era of large scale integration (LSI) when it
was possible to integrate over 30,000 electronic components on a single chip, followed
by very large scale integration (VLSI) when it was possible to integrate about one million
electronic components on a single chip. This progress led to a dramatic development - the
creation of a microprocessor. A microprocessor contains all the circuits needed to
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.
- Spring '14