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Unformatted text preview: s instruction set.
6. As the instructions are interpreted and executed by the CPU, there is a movement of
information between the various units of the computer system. In order to handle this
process satisfactorily and to speed up the rate of information transfer, the computer uses a
number of special memory units called registers. These registers are used to hold
information on a temporary basis and are part of the CPU (not main memory).148
I Foundations of Computing
7. The speed of a processor is directly related to the computer's clock speed, which is
the number of pulses, produced each second by the built-in electronic clock. This clock
speed is measured in megahertz (or MHz.).
8. Although the processing speed of personal computers is generally measured in MHz,
the processing speed of workstations, mini computers, and mainframe systems is often
measured in MIPS (Millions of Instructions Per Second) or BIPS (Billions of Instructions
Per Second), and that of supercomputers is measured in MFLOPS (Millions of Floating
Point Operations Per Second) or GFLOPS (gigaflops which refers to a billion FLOPS).
9. CPUs with large instruction set, variable-length instructions, and a variety of
addressing modes are said to employ CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer)
10. CPUs with a small instruction set, fixed-length instructions, and reduced references
to memory to retrieve operands are said to employ RISC (Reduced Instruction Set
11. The Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) technology is fast emerging as
the technology for next-generation processors. The three key features of EPIC technology
targeted towards improved performance as compared to today's processors are explicit
parallelism, predication and speculation.
12. Every computer has a temporary storage area that is built into the computer hardware
and in which instructions and data of a program reside mainly when the program is being
executed by the CPU. This storage space is known as primary storage, ma...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2014.
- Spring '14