All these programs together form a database

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Unformatted text preview: l (that is, a runtime strategy) for supporting such applications. For this, an active database system uses rules that have up to three components - an event, a condition, and an action. The event part of a rule describes a happening to which the rule may be able to respond. The condition part of the rule examines the context in which the event has taken place. The action describes the task to be carried out by the rule if the relevant event has taken place and the condition has evaluated to true. Such a rule is known as eventcondition-action or ECA-rule. In some cases, the event or the condition may be ether missing or implicit. For instance, in the application discussed above, there is no condition. Hence it is an example of event-action rule. The event is "quantity below threshold value" and the action is "invoke the application for placing order". Points to Remember 1. Data processing is defined as a series of actions or operations that converts data into useful information. Thus, data is the raw material of information and just as raw materials are transformed into finished products by a manufacturing process, raw data is transformed into information by data processing. 2. A data processing system includes the resources such as people, procedures, and devices that are used to accomplish the processing of data for producing desirable output. 3. In data processing, storage of data is often conceptualized as a data storage hierarchy, which normally consists of bit, character, field, record, file and database. 4. Multiple related bits are combined to form a character, multiple related characters are combined to form a field, multiple related fields are combined to form a record, multiple related records are combined to form a file, and multiple related files are integrated to form a database. 5. The two standard methods used in data processing for organizing data are fileoriented approach and database-oriented approach. 6. In the file-oriented approach of organizing data, an application's data is organized into one or more files and the application program processes the data stored in these files to generate the desired output. A set...
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