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Unformatted text preview: f programming
language. Hence, he/she can fully concentrate on the logic of the procedure. Moreover,
since a flowchart shows the flow of operations in pictorial form, any error in the logic of
the procedure can be detected more easily than in the case of a program. Once the
flowchart is ready, the programmer can forget about the logic and can concentrate only
on coding the operations in each box of the flowchart in terms of the statements of the
programming language. This will normally ensure an error-free program.
Experienced programmers sometimes write programs without drawing the flowchart.
However, for a beginner it is recommended that a flowchart be drawn first in order to
reduce the number of errors and omissions in the program. Moreover, it is a good practice
to have a flowchart along with a computer program because a flowchart often serves as a
document for the computer program and is very useful during the testing of the program
as well as while incorporating further modifications in the program. Flowchart Symbols
Need for Flowchart Symbols
We have seen that a flowchart uses boxes of different shapes to denote different types of
instructions. The communication of program logic through flowcharts is made easier
through the use of symbols that have standardized meanings. This is because as long as
everyone uses the same basic shapes, others can readily interpret the logic. For example,
a diamond always means a decision. Hence when a programmer looks at a flowchart,
he/she can easily identify the decision points because all are indicated by a diamondshaped box.
Basic Flowchart Symbols
Only a few symbols are needed to indicate the necessary operations in a flowchart. These
basic flowchart symbols have been standardized by the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI). These symbols are shown in Figure 11.1 and their functions are
1. Terminal. The terminal symbol, as the name implies, is used to indicate the beginning
(Start), ending (Stop), and pauses (Halt) in the program logic flow...
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- Spring '14