Basic flowchart symbols only a few symbols are needed

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Unformatted text preview: f programming language. Hence, he/she can fully concentrate on the logic of the procedure. Moreover, since a flowchart shows the flow of operations in pictorial form, any error in the logic of the procedure can be detected more easily than in the case of a program. Once the flowchart is ready, the programmer can forget about the logic and can concentrate only on coding the operations in each box of the flowchart in terms of the statements of the programming language. This will normally ensure an error-free program. Experienced programmers sometimes write programs without drawing the flowchart. However, for a beginner it is recommended that a flowchart be drawn first in order to reduce the number of errors and omissions in the program. Moreover, it is a good practice to have a flowchart along with a computer program because a flowchart often serves as a document for the computer program and is very useful during the testing of the program as well as while incorporating further modifications in the program. Flowchart Symbols Need for Flowchart Symbols We have seen that a flowchart uses boxes of different shapes to denote different types of instructions. The communication of program logic through flowcharts is made easier through the use of symbols that have standardized meanings. This is because as long as everyone uses the same basic shapes, others can readily interpret the logic. For example, a diamond always means a decision. Hence when a programmer looks at a flowchart, he/she can easily identify the decision points because all are indicated by a diamondshaped box. Basic Flowchart Symbols Only a few symbols are needed to indicate the necessary operations in a flowchart. These basic flowchart symbols have been standardized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). These symbols are shown in Figure 11.1 and their functions are discussed below. Terminal Input/Output Processing Decision Flow lines Connectors 1. Terminal. The terminal symbol, as the name implies, is used to indicate the beginning (Start), ending (Stop), and pauses (Halt) in the program logic flow...
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