For this reason storage devices with very fast access

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Unformatted text preview: s architecture minimizes the CPU participation in I/O data transfer. 89. List out the advantages and limitations of DMA data transfer mechanism.154 I Foundations of Computing 90. What is cycle stealing? 91. Write short notes on: (a) Central Processing Unit (CPU) (b) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) (c) Registers (d) Storage evaluation criteria (e) I/O buses (f) Static and Dynamic RAM (g) Cache memory (h) Locality of reference (i) Cache replacement policy (j) Interleaved memory (k) Memory buses (1) Volatile and Non-volatile storage (m) Interconnection architectures (n) DMA data transfer (o) Fixed and Variable word-length memory 92. Write the full form of the following abbreviations: (a) KB (n) PROM (b) RAM (o) EPROM (c) ROM (p) MAR (d) MBR (q) GFLOPS (e) MB (r) FLOPS (0 GB (s) SIMM (g) CISC (t) LRU (h) RISC (u) ISA bus (i) SRAM (v) EISA bus (j) DRAM (w) MCA bus (k) UVEPROM (x) PPU (1) EEPROM (y) DMA (m) MFLOPS (z) EPIC Chapter 8 Secondary Storage Devices It is desirable that the operating speed of the primary storage of a computer system be as fast as possible because most of the data transfer to and from the processing unit is via the main memory. For this reason, storage devices with very fast access times, such as semiconductors, are generally chosen for the design of primary storage. These high-speed storage devices are expensive and hence the cost per bit of storage is also high for a primary storage. Moreover, these storage devices are volatile. That is, the data stored in them are lost when the power is turned off or interrupted. Hence the primary storage of a computer system has the following limitations: 1. Limited Capacity. The storage capacity of the primary storage is limited. Often, it is necessary to store many millions, sometimes billions, of bytes of data. Unfortunately, the storage capacity of the primary storage of today's computers is not sufficient to store the large volume of data handled by most data processing centres. 2. Volatile. The primary storage is volatile and the data stored in it is lost...
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