However with a wan this cost may be very high because

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Unformatted text preview: is easy. Disadvantages 1. All computers in the network must have good communication and decisionmaking capability. 2. If the communication line fails, the entire system breaks down. Hybrid Network Different network configurations have their own advantages and limitations. Hence in reality, a pure star or ring or completely connected network is rarely used. Instead, an organization will use some sort of hybrid network, which is a combination of two or more different network topologies. The exact configuration of the network depends on the needs and the overall organizational structure of the company involved. In some cases, the hybrid network may have components of star, ring, and completely connected networks. A typical hybrid network of this type is shown in Figure 17.23. NETWORK TYPES (LAN, WAN AND MAN) Networks are broadly classified into two types: local area networks (LANs) and wide-area networks (WANs). The WANs are also referred to as long-haul networks. The key characteristics 1 that are often used to differentiate between these two types of networks are as follows [Reprinted, with permission, from the book titled Distributed Operating Systems: Concepts and Design by Pradeep K. Sinha. © 1997 IEEE]: 1. Geographic distribution. The main difference between the two types of networks is the way in which they are geographically distributed. A LAN is restricted to a limited geographic coverage of a few kilometers, but a WAN spans greater distances and may extend over several thousand kilometers. Therefore, LANs typically provide communication facilities within a building or a campus, whereas WANs may operate nationwide or even worldwide. 2. Data rate. Data transmission rates are usually much higher in LANs than in WANs. Transmission rates in LANs usually range from 0.2 Megabit per second (Mbps) to 1 Gigabit per second (Gbps). On the other hand, transmission rates in WANs usually range from 1200 bits per second to slightly over 1 Mbps. 3. Error rate. Local area networks generally e...
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