In processor bound applications the amount of work

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Unformatted text preview: stries use supercomputers to create special effects for movies and TV programmes. Supercomputers help in producing computergenerated images using advanced graphics features in a much shorter time than the time taken to generate these images on smaller computers. The produced images are incorporated into the movies or TV programmes to create special effects. Thus the advent of supercomputers has drastically reduced the time needed to produce a full-length feature film that uses several such special effects. There are many more supercomputing applications. It is not possible to cover all of them here. All these applications are impractical, if not impossible, on mainframe systems. Supercomputers use multiprocessing and parallel processing technologies to solve complex problems faster. That is, they derive much of their speed from the use of multiple processors, and parallel processing enables a complex problem to be divided into smaller problems that can be assigned to different processors of the system and processed in parallel. A parallel program is written in such a way that the original problem is broken up into smaller computational modules, which can be allocated to different processors, and multiple processors can work independently and cooperate to solve the problem. Thus if the original problem takes 100 hours to process on a single-processor system, and if it can be broken into 100 smaller computational modules, it can be theoretically solved in about 1 hour by using a supercomputer that has 100 processors. Since modern supercomputers employ parallel processing technology, they are also known as parallel computers or parallel processing systems. Moreover, modern supercomputers employ hundreds of processors and are also known as massively parallel processors. Parallel computers are of the following two types: 1. Shared memory parallel computer. As shown in Figure 20.5, in this type of parallel computer, there is a single system-wide primary memory that is shared by all the processors. Any communication between the processors...
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